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Email Comment Ignore Commenter Follow Commenter For nothing this wide universe I call, Save thou, my rose… Men…are masters of their fates: The fault, dear Brutus, lies not in our stars, But in ourselves, that we are underlings… William Shakespeare Scientists must focus not on specific facts but on the regularities that tie them together.
They showed that whites are at the top of this hierarchy with the highest average IQ 103 and the highest socioeconomic status and earnings.
Hispanics come next with an average IQ of 89 and intermediate socioeconomic status and earnings.
Blacks come last with the lowest average IQ of 85 and the lowest socioeconomic status and earnings.
They argued that the racial socioeconomic hierarchy is largely determined by differences in intelligence.
The present book examines how far this thesis holds for other multiracial societies.
In many countries throughout the world there are racial inequalities in earnings and socioeconomic status.
We consider how far these too can be explained by racial differences in intelligence.
The existence of these inequalities has been extensively documented and discussed by historians, sociologists, anthropologists, economists, and psychologists, and various theories have been advanced to explain their causes.
Curiously, the possibility that differences in intelligence might be responsible has never been examined.
As the chapters of the present book unfold, we shall see that the Herrnstein-Murray thesis holds worldwide.
As a tribute to their pioneering work, I have entitled it The Global Bell Curve.
In this introductory chapter we begin by outlining the principal theories that have been advanced to explain racial inequalities.
These are the cultural values, structuralism, and human capital theories.
The cultural values theory states that different groups have their own distinctive values that are passed down within the group from generation to generation.
Some of these values, such as attaching importance to hard work, thrift, trust, and an orientation towards the future, are conducive to good educational attainment and the achievement of high earnings and socioeconomic status.
Conversely, other values such as a happy-go-lucky attitude to life, a preference for leisure over work, a negativistic attitude towards education, and the like are conducive to educational and socioeconomic failure.
This general theory has been applied to racial differences in educational and socioeconomic achievement in the United States and worldwide.
With the economic successes of the free market East Asian economies of Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan in the second half of the twentieth century a number of cultural values theorists proposed that these are attributable to possession of the right cultural values.
Thus, Harrison 1992, p.
The underclass is characterised by poor educational attainment, dropping out of school, low socioeconomic status, crime, long-term unemployment, welfare dependency, drug dependence, and single motherhood.
In the United States, blacks and Hispanics are proportionately over-represented in the underclass.
There are some sociologists who acknowledge that there are racial differences in intelligence and that these are related to differences in educational and socioeconomic achievement, but believe that the intelligence differences can be explained by cultural values theory.
Unhappily for this theory, family values appear to have no effect on the intelligence of children.
If they did, there would be a high correlation between the IQs of children reared in the same family.
In fact, the correlation between the IQs of siblings is only 0.
The correlation between the IQs of adults who are genetically unrelated, adopted as children, and reared in the same families is zero, showing that family cultural values have no effect on IQs Scarr and Weinberg, 1978.
As the paper reporting this result was published in a leading American sociology journal, it might have been expected that sociologist Li would have known it and its devastating implications for his thesis that parents can affect the intelligence of their children by instilling appropriate cultural values.
Cultural values theory has been advanced to explain differences in earnings between nations expressed as per capita income as well as within nations.
For instance, Landes 2000, p.
The weakness of cultural values theory is that it is largely unquantified and has little or no predictive power.
There is a similar problem with the proposed role of Confucianism in promoting the economic development of East Asia.
Weber attributed the backwardness of China to the stultifying cultural values of Confucianism, but more recently the positive values of Confucianism in promoting the virtues of education, saving, and hard work have been invoked to explain the economic successes of the Chinese throughout the region e.
Redding, 1990; Li, 1992.
As Jomo 1997, p.
The elimination of caste barriers is the only lasting solution to the problem of academic retardation.
Another sociologist who adopts this position is Steinberg 2000, p.
This has become known as institutional racism.
Generally the race that has secured power is the Europeans, who have oppressed the blacks and Native American Indians throughout North and South America, the Aborigines in Australia, and the Maoris in New Zealand.
Discrimination is frequently assumed where some racial and ethnic groups do not do so well as others, but the theory see more hard to prove because typically the groups that do poorly have lower intelligence and poorer educational qualifications than those that do well.
In more sophisticated analyses, a number of sociologists and economists have demonstrated that some races and ethnic groups do poorly in socioeconomic status and earnings even when they are matched for education to majority groups that do better.
They then assume that the reason minorities do not achieve so well must be attributed to discrimination.
However, this assumption is not fully convincing.
Two groups that have the same amount of schooling do not necessarily have the same cognitive abilities or motivation for socioeconomic achievement.
Many economists explain individual, racial, and national differences in earnings and socioeconomic status as the result of differences in human capital.
There is no precise definition among economists of human capital, but it is generally taken to mean the skills and aptitudes, and possibly may include the attitudes and health that contribute to efficient work, and which consequently command higher incomes.
These skills are generally considered to be acquired through education and are measured by various measures of educational inputs, e.
The weakness of human capital theory is that most of it does not adequately analyse the reasons why some individuals and well! red rock casino offer code 2020 possible populations obtain more education and acquire greater cognitive skills.
The likely explanation is that both of these are largely determined by intelligence.
The correlations between intelligence and years of education and educational attainment within nations typically lie between 0.
With such high correlations as these, the measures of educational attainment used by economists and shown to be related to earnings among individuals and per capita incomes between nations must be largely functions of intelligence.
There are however a number of economists who have recognized that intelligence is a major determinant of educational attainment and earnings.
Typically, they are uncomfortable with the term intelligence and prefer terms like cognitive ability Cawley, Heckman, and Vytlactil, 2001 or intellectual capacity Zax and Rees, 2002.
Other economists who have demonstrated a relation between childhood IQ and adult earnings include Crouse 1979Bishop 1989Neal and Johnson 1996Murnane et al.
Zax and Rees 2002 p.
This theory was advanced in the nineteenth century by Francis Galton 1869 who proposed in his Hereditary Genius that people differ in intelligence, that these differences are largely inherited, which he argued is shown by their transmission in families from generation to generation, and that they are an important determinant of socioeconomic status.
He maintained also that there are differences in intelligence between nations and races, and that these are responsible for differences in the level of civilization.
He assessed the intelligence of the races by the numbers of geniuses they produced in relation to the size of their populations.
He concluded that the Greeks of classical Athens were the most intelligent people, followed in descending order by the lowland Scots, the English, the Africans, and the Australian Aborigines.
He argued that these differences in intelligence are largely responsible for the different achievements of these populations in building civilizations.
Thus Galton proposed that differences in intelligence are a major determinant of inequalities in achievement between individuals and between nations and races.
He did not, however, extend this thesis to racial differences within nations, which is the focus of this book.
With the development of the intelligence test in the twentieth century, a number of studies were made in the United States and Europe of the relation between intelligence, subsequent earnings, and socioeconomic status.
The methodology of these studies was to measure the intelligence of a sample in childhood or adolescence and earnings and socioeconomic status in adulthood.
In the early 1970s these studies were synthesized by Jencks 1972 in his book Inequality.
He also regarded IQs as determined early in childhood as a result of genetic and environmental factors.
Thus, genetic factors affect educational attainment, socioeconomic status, and earnings.
He estimated that there are genetic effects on socioeconomic status of between 0.
He also introduced the model of path analysis to explain the causal relationships between IQ and these variables.
A path model is therefore a causal chain in which genes are a determinant of IQ, which is a determinant of educational achievement, which in turn is a determinant of socioeconomic status and earnings.
As Gottfredson 1997 has shown in detail and as Geary 2005, p.
In three of these studies, the positive correlations between childhood IQ and adult earnings were present among pairs of brothers who have been raised in the same family Jencks, 1972; Murray, 1998; Waller, 1971.
These have shown that the brother with the higher IQ in childhood has the greater earnings in adulthood, and therefore the effect holds independent of family environment.
We also summarized 21 studies in which the correlations between childhood IQ and socioeconomic status in adulthood range between 0.
In 1994 Herrnstein and Murray produced their book The Bell Curve in which they extended the theory of intelligence as a determinant of earnings and socioeconomic status to the problem of race differences in the United States.
Their conclusion was that the differences in earnings and socioeconomic status of blacks, Hispanics, and whites are largely due to differences in intelligence.
The body of the The Bell Curve consisted of an examination a large American sample the National Longitudinal Study of Youth whose intelligence had been measured in late adolescence and whose socioeconomic status, earnings, and other characteristics had been recorded at an average age of 29 years.
In their analysis of this data set and of previous studies they drew six important conclusions.
First, they showed that rather carnival dream slot tournament 2020 apologise the whites, intelligence measured in adolescence was associated with earnings and socioeconomic status at an average age of 29 at a correlation of approximately 0.
This was not an original result but one that had been shown in a number of previous studies and was to be shown subsequently in further studies, so this conclusion was not controversial.
Second, Herrnstein and Murray extended the principle that intelligence is a determinant of earnings and socioeconomic status from individuals to races.
They analysed the results for the three major American racial groups of whites, Hispanics, and blacks and found that whites had the highest average IQ 103the greatest percentage in socioeconomic status category 1 physicians, attorneys, chief executive officers, etc.
Hispanics came next with an IQ of 89, a smaller percentage in socioeconomic status category 1, and with somewhat lower earnings.
Blacks had the lowest average IQ 85a smaller percentage in socioeconomic status category 1, and the lowest earnings.
These results shown in Table 1.
These analyses were confined to men and were conducted for socioeconomic status by matching whites, blacks, and Hispanics for IQ.
First, they took all those with an IQ of 117 the average IQ of those in SES 1and looked at the percentages of those with IQs of 117 who were in SES 1.
They found that blacks with an IQ of 117 were much more likely than whites to be in SES 1 26 percent as compared with 10 percentand Hispanics with an IQ of 117 were also more likely than whites to be in SES 1 16 percent as compared with 10 percent p.
The apparent advantage of blacks and Hispanics for socioeconomic status did not, however, hold for earnings.
For these Herrnstein and Murray p.
They found that whites earned slightly more than Hispanics, while Hispanics earned slightly more than blacks.
These results are shown in Table 1.
This is contrary to the widely held belief among sociologists, social anthropologists, economists, and some psychologists that the reason for the lower socioeconomic status of blacks and Hispanics is that whites discriminate against them.
Contrary to this belief, it appeared that blacks and Hispanics have higher socioeconomic status than would be expected on the basis of their IQs.
These results were not peculiar to the study by Herrnstein and Murray but had previously been found by Gottfredson 1986, p.
For instance, she argued that if the lower bound cut off for qualifying as a physician is taken as an IQ of 112, the black-white ratio with this IQ is about 0.
The actual black-white ratio for physicians is about 0.
Part of the explanation for the over-representation of blacks in high socioeconomic status occupations is that blacks enter college and obtain more years of education than whites of the same intelligence level Gottfredson,1986, p.
This is itself due partly to positive discrimination, through which blacks are admitted to colleges and professional schools with lower IQs than whites, so a higher proportion of them obtain the educational credentials to enter high socioeconomic status occupations.
It may also be that blacks, and to a lesser extent Hispanics, gain an advantage from positive discrimination in employment.
Corporations, law firms, universities, and the like are under pressure from affirmative action policies to employ blacks in senior positions, and they comply with this pressure to promote good public relations for their organizations.
The race differences in earnings found by Herrnstein and Murray are different.
Here whites matched with blacks and Hispanics for IQ do have fractionally higher earnings The advantage of whites could be due in part to discrimination in their favor by other whites, or to values such as a stronger work ethic, as posited by cultural values theory, or to personality differences such as higher conscientiousness.
However, there is almost no race difference in earnings once IQ is controlled, so the effect of these other factors is very small.
Fourth: the next point made in The Bell Curve was that intelligence is not only the major determinant of socioeconomic status and earnings, but is also a major determinant of educational attainment, long-term unemployment, welfare dependency, crime, out-of-wedlock births, and poverty.
To show this they presented first the actual race differences in these phenomena and then the differences when the races were matched for IQ.
Their results are shown in Table 1.
Row 1 shows that a much higher percentage 27 percent of whites had a degree than of blacks and Hispanics 11 percent and 10 percent.
Row 2 gives the percentages of those with IQs of 114 the average for college graduates and shows that this was significantly greater for blacks 68 percent than for whites and Hispanics 50 percent and 49 percent.
Rows 3 and 4 give similar analyses for the percentages in poverty.
Row 3 shows that a much higher percentage 26 percent of blacks in poverty than of you san manuel casino commercial 2020 apologise 7 percent and Hispanics 18 percent.
Row 4 gives the percentages of those with IQs of 100 in poverty and shows that the race differences shrink to about a third.
However, there are still significantly differences and blacks have about twice the percentage in poverty as whites 11 percent as compared with 6 percentwith Hispanics intermediate 9 percent.
Rows 5 and 6 give results for the percentages that had been unemployed https://oilfieldchili.com/2020/mill-bay-casino-2020-concerts.html more than one month.
Row 5 shows that this was about twice as great among blacks 21 percent as among whites 10 percentwith Hispanics intermediate 14 percent.
Row 6 gives the percentages of those with IQs of 100 and shows that the race differences shrink to 15 percent for blacks and 11 percent for whites and Hispanics.
Again, there are still significantly more blacks among those who have experienced unemployment 15 percent as whites and Hispanics 11 percent.
The principal reason that the unemployed tend to have low intelligence is that those with low intelligence are unable to acquire the vocational skills to secure employment.
Rows 7 and 8 give results for the percentages of women that had had illegitimate children and shows that a much higher percentage 62 percent among blacks than among Hispanics 23 percent and whites 12 percent.
When the races are matched for IQs the differences shrink although they remain substantial.
Rows 9 and 10 give race differences for the percentages of women who had ever been on welfare.
Row 9 shows that this was much higher among blacks 49 percent than among Hispanics 30 percent and whites 13 percent.
Row 10 shows the percentages of those with IQs of 100 who had ever been on welfare and shows that the race differences are reduced.
However, there are still significant differences and blacks have twice as many welfare recipients as Hispanics 30 percent as against 15 percentand almost three times as many welfare recipients as whites 30 percent as compared with 12 percent.
Rows 11 and 12 give race differences for the percentages of young men who had been incarcerated in prison.
Row 11 shows that percentage of blacks 13 percent was approximately double that of Hispanics 6 percentsource approximately six times higher than of whites 2 percent.
Row 12 shows once again that the race differences shrink to about a third when the races are matched for IQ.
But again the race differences do not disappear.
Blacks have nearly double the percentage in prison as Hispanics 5 percent as compared with 3 percentand two and a half times as many as whites 5 percent as compared with 2 percent.
Fifth, Herrnstein and Murray showed there are race differences in fertility that are negatively related to differences in intelligence.
White women with the highest average IQ have the fewest children 1.
This is consistent with the more general phenomenon that, irrespective of race, there is a virtually universal tendency for the better educated, the higher socioeconomic classes, and the more intelligent to have fewer children than the poorly educated, the lower socioeconomic classes, and the less intelligent.
This is a worldwide trend that I have documented in Lynn 1996.
The principal reason is that more intelligent women control their fertility more effectively.
The phenomenon is known as dysgenic fertility.
Race differences in education and other social outcomes and differences matched for IQs Social outcomes Blacks Hispanics Whites 1 College degree 11 10 27 2 Matched for IQ 68 49 50 3 Poverty 26 18 7 4 Matched for IQ 11 9 6 5 Unemployment 21 14 10 6 Matched for IQ 15 11 11 7 Illegitimacy 62 23 12 8 Matched for IQ 51 17 10 9 Welfare 49 30 13 10 Matched skeem saam omnibus time slot 2020 IQ 30 15 12 11 Crime 13 6 2 12 Matched for IQ 5 3 2 The final issue discussed in The Bell Curve was whether the race differences in intelligence are to some degree genetic.
A full presentation of the evidence supporting this conclusion has been given by Jensen 1998 and in Lynn 2006 and will not be repeated here.
Five major conclusions can be drawn from the analyses presented in this section.
First, for all the social phenomena there is a consistent racial hierarchy in which whites perform best in securing the highest socioeconomic status, earnings, and education, and lowest rates of poverty, unemployment, illegitimate births, welfare, and crime.
Hispanics come next in this racial hierarchy, and blacks perform worst.
Second, this racial hierarchy reflects differences in intelligence.
Third, when the races are matched for intelligence, the race differences in earnings, socioeconomic status, and education virtually disappear.
This shows that these differences cannot be due to blacks and Hispanics having different cultural values or to discrimination against them by whites, but are wholly explicable by IQ differences.
Fourth, race differences in rates of poverty, unemployment, illegitimate births, welfare, and crime are substantially reduced when the races are matched for IQ, but they do not disappear.
This shows that intelligence differences make a substantial contribution to race differences in these phenomena, but other factors are also operating.
These could be cultural values or discrimination, and they could also be personality factors.
Fifth, the United States is experiencing dysgenic fertility, the effect of which is that the genotypic intelligence of the population is declining.
A few social scientists did recognize that The Bell Curve was right.
For instance, Darity and Myers 1998, p.
Johnson and Neal 1998, p.
They calculated that the black-white difference in earnings is largely due to differences in IQ and that after controlling for IQ, black men earned 96 percent of the earnings of white men, while black women earned 15 percent more than white women.
Raudenbush and Kasim 1998 reached a similar conclusion.
However, the history of science tells us that new theories that undermine cherished and strongly held beliefs are typically either ignored or viciously attacked.
This has been the case with The Bell Curve.
Most sociologists, social anthropologists, and historians simply ignored it and continued to debate whether cultural values theory or structuralism theory best https://oilfieldchili.com/2020/atlantic-city-poker-tournaments-march-2020.html racial differences in earnings, socioeconomic status, and other social phenomena.
For instance, six years after the publication of The Bell Curve, Vermeulen and Perlmann 2000 respectively a social anthropologist and director of research at the Institute of Racial Studies at the University of Amsterdam, and a sociologist at Bard College in the United States edited a book with chapters on the socioeconomic successes or otherwise of blacks, Italians, Greeks, and Jews in the United States, of blacks, Spanish, Turks, Moroccans, and Indians in the Netherlands, and of blacks and mulattos in Brazil, without a single mention of The Bell Curve or of the differences in intelligence between these races.
Many other social scientists attacked The Bell Curve but they were not able to refute the central thesis.
We are now ready to see how far the thesis of The Bell Curve that racial differences in intelligence are responsible for much of the differences in earnings, socioeconomic status, and a number of other social phenomena holds in other nations and regions of the world besides the United States.
The countries in Africa with significant multi-racial populations are South Africa and the East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
In all of these there are racial socioeconomic hierarchies in which whites are at the top, Indians in the middle, and blacks at the bottom.
In addition South Africa has a sizeable group of coloreds, who are mixed race hybrids mainly of European and African descent and who are in the middle of the socioeconomic hierarchy roughly on a par with the Indians.
The first European to discover South Africa was Vasco da Gama in 1497.
In 1651 the Dutchman Jan van Riebeeck established a settlement on the Cape.
From the outset slaves were imported from other parts of Africa.
In the early years some of the Dutchmen married Hottentot women, but in 1865 that was prohibited by law.
The Dutch community grew, augmented by some British and Germans.
In 1806 the British took control of the Cape.
This led to the Boer War of 1899—1902.
In 1910 the Union of South Africa was established.
Apartheid was introduced in 1948.
In 1949 racial intermarriage was made illegal, and in 1950 this was extended to all sexual relations.
In 1950 the Group Areas Act established separate residential locations for the four races.
In 1953 segregation was extended to all public amenities and schools, and this was extended to universities in 1959.
In 1990 Nelson Mandela was released and segregation was ended in all public amenities and schools.
In 1994 the first multi-racial elections were held.
The coast of East Africa was known in ancient times to Persians, Indians, and Arabs of present day Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States.
It is recorded that Indian and Arab ships were trading along the coast of East Africa around 80 A.
From at least the tenth century Indians and Arabs established settlements on the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba and along the coast of the East African mainland.
The objective of these settlements was to obtain ivory, and African slaves for transportation to Arabia, India, and elsewhere in South Asia.
The Muslim King of Gaur in Bengal 1459-1474 is said to have had about 8,000 African slaves Delf, 1963.
In exchange for ivory and slaves they traded firearms, trinkets such as glass beads, and cotton cloth.
In 1828 the Imam of Muscat, Seyyid Said bin Sultan, moved his capital to Zanzibar, where he built a substantial town, introduced the cultivation of the clove, and developed the port for the continue reading and slave trade.
The British annexed Kenya, Uganda, and the northern part of Tanganyika as Tanzania was then called as colonies in the 1880s, and at about the same time Germany annexed the southern part of Tanganyika, known as German East Africa, and the Portuguese annexed Mozambique.
In 1918, the British took control of the German East Africa through a United Nations mandate.
These colonies were given independence in the 1960s, when Tanganyika was integrated with Zanzibar to form the independent republic of Tanzania.
In 1964 the white government of Zimbabwe declared UDI independence and was subject to an international trade embargo.
A settlement was reached in 1980 giving lawful independence.
The racial composition of the populations of the six African countries is shown in Table 2.
Throughout the twentieth century South Africa had the largest white and Indian minorities, although both of these diminished as a proportion of the population over the course of the century, principally as a result of the greater fertility of blacks.
Zimbabwe had the next largest white minority at mid-century, but a lot of whites left in the second half of the century.
Uganda had a small Indian minority until 1972, when Idi Amin expelled them and confiscated of all foreign owned businesses and estates, after which the Europeans also left.
Composition of the populations percentages Country Year Whites Indians Coloreds Blacks Kenya 1950 0.
The reason for the presence of sizeable Indian populations in South Africa and East Africa is that in the nineteenth century the European colonists needed laborers for manual work of various kinds.
They found that blacks were unsuitable for this and so they brought over Indians to do the work.
In South Africa Indians were brought over from the 1860s onwards principally to work in the sugar and cotton plantations in Natal.
Initially they tried to employ blacks but they found that these did not make satisfactory employees.
Sir Harry Johnston, a British colonial administrator, explained the problem: These semi-tropical plantations brought about a fresh want—that of patient, cheap, agricultural laborers.
Unhappily, the black man, though so strong in body and so unaspiring in ideals, has as a rule a strong aversion to continuous agricultural labor.
Therefore the black men of Natal, though they made useful domestic servants and police, were of but little use in the plantations.
Some two decades Leonard Thompson 1952, p.
About 150,000 were brought over between 1860 and 1914.
The terms of the indentures were that they were required to work for their employers for five years at a stipulated wage.
The same problem surfaced at the end of the nineteenth century in East Africa when the British in Kenya and the Germans in Tanganyika needed laborers to build the railroads.
The first of these was built in Kenya between 1895—1903, running from the coastal port of Mombassa to the present capital Nairobi and on to Kisumi on Lake Victoria.
The objective of the railroad was to transport goods from the interior to the coast and then overseas, and to carry goods to the interior.
The British found that they could not get blacks to do the work of building railroads.
Many other whites have made the same observation.
Thus, Vernon 1969, p.
Both they and the British in Kenya overcame this problem by bringing in Indians, principally from Gujarat and the Punjab, to build the railroads and for other public works, such as building and road construction.
In his history of the building of the Kenya railroad, Hill 1920, p.
When the building of the railroad in Kenya had been completed, 6,724 Indians opted to remain in the country where some took up market gardening or became artisans, while the majority became traders, introduced trade goods to blacks and spread the use of money instead of barter…and played an invaluable part in establishing the economy of the country S.
In the early decades of the twentieth century a new wave of Indians migrated to East Africa.
According to Floyd and Lillian Dotson, two American sociologists who were experts on East Africa, the first Indians to come to East Africa as indentured laborers were from a much lower socioeconomic status than the second wave of immigrants: Indentured Indians were without exception miserably poor in India.
Otherwise, they would never have been tempted into signing a long contact promising little except hard labor far from home.
Some women were always included in indentured shipments but never in equal proportions.
In any case, a normal family life was scarcely possible while the indentured worker was still under contact, forced as he was to live in barracks and do gang labor under highly regimented conditions Dotson and Dotson, 1968, p.
The second wave of Indian immigrants came from the middle socioeconomic strata of India.
A similar pattern of development took place in the German colony of Tanganyika later renamed Tanzania.
The Germans annexed this territory in 1885.
They had the same unsatisfactory experience of the unreliability of African workers as the British had in Kenya and adopted the same solution of bringing in Indians to build the railroads from Dar es Salaam to Kigoma and from Tanga to Moshi.
When the building of the railroads had been completed, several thousand Indians stayed in Tanganyika, and by 1913 the Indian population stood at 9,645 Foster, Hitchcock, and Lyimo, 2000, p.
The Indians prospered, as they had in Kenya, so by 1939 the Indian minority had a major stake in Tanganyika, owning ninety percent of urban property and eighty percent of the cotton and sisal industry.
They were employed at lower levels of the civil service and there were also professionals such as doctors and lawyers Foster, Hitchcock, and Lyimo, 2000, p.
The Portuguese also had a similar experience of attempting without success to link blacks to build the railroad in their colony of Mozambique and they too adopted the solution of bringing in Indians to build the railroad from the port of Poker 2020 best to Southern Rhodesia.
By the 1920s the Indians had established themselves in the middle sector of the socioeconomic hierarchy as small business people, shopkeepers, junior administrators, clerks, and skilled artisans, socially and economically above the blacks and below the whites.
In the early 1930s, Lord Delamere who resided in Kenya wrote All the vegetable growing for the towns is done by Indians, all the butchers with one or two exceptions are Indians, all the small country stores are https://oilfieldchili.com/2020/slimslot-system.html by Indians, and most of the town shops, all of the lower grade clerks are Indians, nearly all the carpentry and building work is done by Indians…by the mid-twenties a three class society had been established on racial lines with whites monopolizing export crop agriculture, the higher administrative posts and the professions, the Indians trade commerce and the middle reaches of the bureaucracy, and the blacks left with unskilled wage employment, small-holder farming, and the lower level posts in the administration; in the Second World War the whites and Indians still dominated business….
Dotson and Dotson, 1968, p.
The same continue reading hierarchy was present throughout the British colonies in East Africa: The British developed a three-tiered civil service in which rank, salary and responsibility were drawn on racial lines.
It was not only in the public administration that the Indians did well.
In the private sector also the Indian community prospered throughout East Africa in the middle decades of the twentieth century.
In Kenya the number of companies formed over the years 1961—1973 were 478 by Indians, 335 by whites, and 313 by blacks Swainson, 1980.
The Indians were particularly prominent in retail trade.
In Tanzania, by the 1920s the Indians had achieved higher socioeconomic status and earnings than the blacks.
The Indians became the most numerous artisan community and assumed a prominence in furniture making, metal-working, auto-mechanics, and general construction; the proportion of skilled Indians was higher than that of skilled blacks; one of the main achievements of the Indians artisans was the construction of nearly all buildings Gregory, 1993, pp.
In Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania the Indians also rapidly established themselves as a middle and skilled working class, economically and socially above the blacks.
The top layer consisted of a highly privileged planter aristocracy of whites.
The bottom layer, the least privileged, comprised blacks.
By the 1920s the British colonial administrators in Kenya became concerned about the growing economic power of the Indians.
In Kenya, Delf 1963, pp.
After the East African colonies became independent in 1963—1964 throughout East Africa the governments attempted to reduce the power of the Indian community but this created difficulties because they were not followed by the development of an African entrepreneurial class.
There were problems when Indians who possessed the necessary skills were replaced by African political appointees whose competence in matters of business was not proven Foster, Hitchcock, and Lyimo, 2000, p.
Race differences in intelligence of Indians, coloreds in South Africaand blacks in the seven African countries are given in Table 2.
All these differences are calculated in relation to a white IQ of 100.
The bottom row gives the medians of 86 for Indians, 83 for coloreds and 69 for blacks.
The median IQ of 69 for blacks is typical of sub-Saharan Africa.
Two of the studies give substantially higher IQs, namely 89 for one of the studies from Kenya row 5.
This is so discordant in relation to the other five studies that lie between 63—76 that there must be some error in the figure.
Intelligence of Indians, cloreds, and blacks in relation to 100 for whites Country Age N Test Indians Coloreds Blacks Reference 1 Kenya Adults 205 CPM - - 69 Boissiere et al.
Other studies have confirmed this difference without giving figures.
Thus, Schmidt 1960, p.
This is what would be expected of a mixed race population assuming approximately equal contributions of the two parent populations.
The IQ of 86 of Indians is a little higher than the IQ of 82 based on 13 studies in India given in Lynn 2006.
There may be two reasons for this.
software casino free first is that those who migrated to Africa may have been a little above the average, and the second may be that Indians in Africa enjoy a higher standard of living that may give their intelligence an environmental boost.
The higher intelligence of Indians than of blacks is confirmed by numerous observations.
There is further corroboration of the low intelligence of sub-Saharan blacks from seven studies showing that they have smaller average brain size than Europeans.
Details of these are given in Lynn 2006.
The most authoritative study is that of Smith and Beals 1990 giving a brain size difference of 85cc or about 7 percent.
Brain size is significantly associated with intelligence at a correlation of approximately 0.
Twelve studies have been reported of the intelligence of African university students in South Africa.
Some of these also give IQs of European students tested at the same time and three of them also give IQs for Indian students.
In these studies whites obtain the highest IQs followed the Indians, and the blacks obtain the lowest IQs.
The studies are summarized in Table 2.
Row 1 gives an IQ of 84 for African and 103 for European university students calculated in relation to American adult norms given in Raven, Court, and Raven 1994.
Rows 2 and 3 give results for students on the Blox test and gives the IQs of Africans in relation to South African European student norms of 100.
Row 4 gives results for the WAIS-R for students with an average age of 25 years at the African universities of Fort Hare, Zululand, the North, and the Medical University of South Africa.
The Verbal IQ was 78 and the Performance IQ 73, showing once again that the Africans have low IQs in all major cognitive abilities and disconfirming the claim sometimes made that Africans are handicapped in language tasks.
Row 5 gives an IQ of 100 for science students at the University of the North.
Row 6 gives an IQ of 77 for students at a less prestigious African university.
Row 7 gives an IQ of 83 for students at the University of the Witwatersrand and the Rand Afrikaans University in Johannesburg.
Row 8 gives an IQ of 82 for African students at the Venda University in the Northern Transvaal.
The comparison European group were at the University of Tilberg in the Netherlands.
Row 9 gives an IQ of 81 for psychology students at the University of the Witwatersrand.
Row 10 gives an IQs of 93 for blacks, 98 for Indians, and 106 for whites for first year engineering students at the University of the Witwatersrand.
Row 11 gives IQs of 99, 102, and 113 for a further sample of engineering students at the University of the Witwatersrand.
Row 12 gives IQs of 101, 106, and 116 for a third sample of black, Indian, and white Witwatersrand engineering students.
Thus, in these studies the IQs of students show the same rank order as in the general population samples summarized in Table 2.
In Zimbabwe about 80 percent of children of primary school age attended schools and virtually all children of primary school age attended school in Zambia Dotson and Dotson 1968, p.
Race differences in educational attainment show the same gradient as for intelligence.
Some data illustrating these differences in South Africa are given read article Table 2.
Row 1 gives the percentages who had only completed primary education in 1980, collected by the Central Statistical Service, and shows that this was lowest among whites, followed by Indians but, surprisingly, higher among coloreds than among blacks.
Race differences in educational attainment in South Africa percentages Year Measure Whites Indians Coloreds Blacks 1 1980 Primary 15 33 44 37 2 1980 Secondary 57 38 23 14 3 1980 University 4.
Row 3, also for 1980, gives the percentages with university degrees and shows that this follows the same gradient as for secondary education, being highest among whites 4.
Row 4 gives the percentages that had passed the Matriculation examination taken by school leavers in the 1991 census.
Row 5 gives the percentages enrolled in universities in 1991 and shows the same white-Indian-colored-blacks gradient.
Row 6 gives the percentages aged 20 and over who have completed university and other forms of higher education.
These results are consistent in showing that the whites achieve the best education followed by the Indians, coloreds, and blacks, but the differences between the coloreds and blacks is rather less than between the other races.
Racial differences in the mathematics test for 13 year olds in the Third International Study have been given by Howie 1997, 2002 and are shown in Table 2.
It will be seen that whites do best, Indians come next but are only marginally ahead of coloreds, while blacks performed worst.
Race differences in mathematics attainment Whites Indians Coloreds Blacks Number 831 199 1,172 5,412 Score 373 341 339 254 S.
Studies carried out in 1971 and 1980 in Tanzania by Armitage and Sabot 1991 showed that Indians had many more years of education than blacks.
The results are summarized in Table 2.
Row 1 gives years of education from a survey of approximately 1,000 manufacturing sector employees carried out in 1971 showing 8.
Row tournaments vegas march 2020 give results from a survey of approximately 2,000 workers in Dar es Salaam carried out in 1980 and shows a similar difference 11.
These differences reflect the higher socioeconomic skeem saam omnibus time slot 2020 of the Indians.
Europeans were not included in these surveys.
There are also differences in the examination attainments of blacks and Indians.
Some of these have been given for Kenya and Tanzania for the mid-1980s by Armitage and Sabot 1991.
The attainment measure is placement in the top and second divisions in the O Ordinary level examinations normally taken at the age of 16 in several academic subjects.
The results are summarized in Table 2.
Rows 1 and 2 show that in Kenya, Indians had higher percentages than blacks in the top two divisions.
Rows 3 and 4 show that this is also the case in Tanzania.
Conversely blacks had higher percentages than Indians in the bottom two divisions in both countries.
Examination attainment of blacks and Indians in East Africa percentages Country Division Blacks Indians 1 Kenya 1 12.
It will be seen that the rank order of average earnings is consistent over the 64-year period.
Whites have had the highest earnings, followed by Indians and then by coloreds, and blacks have had the lowest earnings.
The differentials have narrowed for whites as compared with the other races.
Whites had average earnings about ten times those of blacks in 1936 and in 1946, but this advantage has shrunk progressively to slightly less than three times those of blacks in 1993.
Indians had average earnings slightly more than double those of blacks in 1936, 1975, and 1985, but slightly less than double those of blacks in 1993.
Education number of years of blacks and Indians in Tanzania Year Blacks Indians 1971 3.
The average incomes of the Indians and Europeans are expressed as multiples of those of blacks.
Thus, row 1 shows that in 1914 the average income of the Indians was 26 times greater than that of blacks, while the average income of the Europeans was a remarkable 144 times greater than that of blacks.
Rows 2 through 5 show the average incomes from 1927 through 1971.
It will be seen that the income advantage of the Indians relative to that of the blacks barely changed over the period of a little over half a century.
The income advantage of the Europeans however was greatly reduced by 1971 to less than a third of what it was in 1914.
Nevertheless, even in 1971 the income of the Europeans was almost double that of Indians and 42 times greater than that of blacks.
Race and ethnic differences in South Africa in earnings 1936—1946, £; 1995—2000, Rand Year Whites Indians Coloreds Blacks 1 1936 129.
Earnings of Indians and Europeans in Kenya expressed as multiples of earnings of blacks Year Blacks Indians Europeans 1914 1 26 144 1927 1 25 107 1946 1 22 84 1960 1 20 57 1971 1 24 42 There are similar differences in average earnings between blacks and Indians in Tanzania.
In both surveys Indians earned substantially more than blacks.
The earnings of Europeans were not reported.
Race differences in socioeconomic status in South Africa in 1980 are given in Table 2.
Row 1 gives the percentages working in the professions and shows that this was the highest among the whites 20%followed by Indians 10%coloreds 6%and blacks 4%.
Row 2 gives the percentages working as administrators and managers and shows the same gradient, being highest among the whites 5%followed by Indians 2.
Race differences in socioeconomic status in South Africa in 1980 Measure Whites Indians Coloreds Blacks Reference 1 Professional 20.
It will be seen that a remarkable 90 percent of Indians were working in white collar or skilled positions as compared with only 40 percent of blacks.
Conversely, only 10 percent of Indians were working in semi-skilled or skilled positions as compared with 60 percent of blacks.
In the late 1990s unemployment was 37 percent among blacks and 6 percent among whites Foster, Hitchcock, and Lyimo, 2000, p.
In 1994 the South African Integrated Household Survey of approximately 3,156 children reported the percentages of the races that were living in poverty, defined as having less than 726 Rand per month, and that were malnourished, as determined by the prevalence of stunting low stature.
Stunting is defined as having height two or more standard deviations below the international reference standard mean.
The results are given in Table 2.
The same racial gradient is present.
Whites have the lowest percentage living in poverty, followed by Indians and coloreds, while blacks have the highest percentage in poverty.
Whites also have the lowest percentage of malnutrition 5.
The figure for Indians was not given in this study.
I have shown in detail that malnutrition adversely affects intelligence Lynn, 1990.
There is no doubt that the greater prevalence of malnutrition among the coloreds and the blacks will contribute to their lower intelligence.
However, even among blacks fewer than a third are malnourished and this makes it doubtful whether it can fully explain the race differences in IQs.
The race differences in the prevalence of malnutrition and intelligence can be understood as arising from genotype-environment correlation as described by Plomin 1994through which those with high genotypic and phenotypic intelligence provide their children with good nutrition.
This gives them a double advantage of good genes and a good environment and brings genotypic and phenotypic intelligence into positive correlation.
Socioeconomic status differences between blacks and Indians in Tanzania percentages Country Blacks Indians White collar 11 59 Skilled 29 31 Semi-skilled 40 9 Unskilled 20 1 Race differences in homicide per 100,000 population in South Africa have been published by Lester 1989 and are given in Table 2.
These show a similar gradient to that present for intelligence, socioeconomic status, and the like, with the lowest rate among whites, followed by Indians and much higher rates among coloreds and blacks.
There is, however, a reversal of the usual sequence for coloreds and blacks, with consistently higher homicide rates among coloreds than among blacks.
Race differences in homicide per 100,000 population in South Africa Year Whites Indians Coloreds Blacks 1978 3.
Infant mortality rates have fallen considerably during the half-century, as elsewhere in the world, as a result of medical advances particularly in the use of antibiotics.
Nevertheless, there were considerable differences between the races and in both data sets the infant mortality rates follow the intelligence gradient of whites- Indians-coloreds-blacks.
Race differences in poverty and malnutrition in South Africa Measure Whites Indians Coloreds Blacks Reference Poverty 12.
The race differences show the typical pattern found in many parts of the world where fertility begins to decline first and remains low in the groups be they social classes or races with schedule 2020 highest intelligence because these are better able to use contraception efficiently.
Thus, whites had the lowest fertility throughout the period.
In 1945—1950 the fertility of the other three races was much the same.
By 1965—1970 the fertility of the Indians showed a significant decline, indicating that significant numbers were using contraception, but there was virtually no sign of the use of contraception among the coloreds and blacks.
By 1987—1989 the fertility of all four races was well below 6 showing that some members of all races were using contraception.
A 1987—1989 survey showed that the percentages using contraception were whites 80followed by Indians 70coloreds 64and blacks 50 Chimere-Dan, 1993.
Thus, in 1987—1989 both the use of contraception and the fertility rates of the races reflected their IQs.
The use of contraception was highest among whites, followed by Indians and coloreds, and lowest among blacks, while the fertility rates showed the reverse gradient being lowest among whites, followed by Indians and coloreds, and highest among blacks.
Race differences in infant mortality per 1,000 live births Year Whites Indians Coloreds Blacks 1945 40.
Race differences in fertility TFR in South Africa Year Whites Indians Coloreds Blacks 1945-50 3.
The Europeans are at the top because when they colonized the countries they took ownership of most of the land, established businesses, and administered the civil service and police.
Their position can be explained by structuralism, which maintains that races that hold power use it to sustain their own position and are able to do this for a number of generations.
The position of the Indians and coloreds in South Africa in the middle of the socioeconomic hierarchies requires some explanation.
In all these countries there are large majority indigenous African populations and small minority Indian populations.
Despite being very small minorities and without political power, the Indians have higher IQs than the blacks, and higher educational attainment, socioeconomic status, and earnings.
Why should this be?
Since blacks comprise 98 to 99 percent of the populations in East Africa, the proposed discrimination against them and in favor of Indians seems rather improbable.
They report that Indians do much better in examinations than blacks in both Kenya and Tanzania, but they do not seem to be aware that examination performance is highly correlated with intelligence at a magnitude of around 0.
It does not seem to have occurred to them that Indians might have higher IQs than blacks.
The most reasonable explanation for the higher educational attainment, earnings, and socioeconomic status of Indians throughout South and East Africa and coloreds in South Africa is that they have substantially higher IQs than blacks.
Some observers have reached this conclusion with regard to the Indians, although the term intelligence is never mentioned.
Floyd and Lillian Dotson are two American sociologists who carried out fieldwork in East Africa in the 1960s to try to discover why the Indians did so much better than the blacks.
They concluded that few blacks ran shops successfully because this demands a knowledge of arithmetic and bookkeeping which would be completely beyond the average African.
He does not know prices or where to buy stock advantageously.
For this reason, he often sells at a loss without realizing what he is doing.
When business has been brisk, and he finds himself with an unusual amount of money, he is under the impression that he is rich.
He does not fully realize that the larger proportion of what he has in hand is capital, not profit, and that it has to be re-invested if he is to stay in business Dotson and Dotson, 1968, p.
Several observers concluded that the blacks have character defects that prevent them from doing well in socioeconomic status compared with Europeans and Indians.
They have contrasted the strong work ethic of Europeans and Indians as contrasted with the more relaxed work attitudes of the blacks.
As early as 1897 Sir Harry Johnston who was appointed head of the British administration in Nyasaland wrote I am all for Indianizing Central Africa and making these great wastelands the seats of thriving Indian colonies where something better than the rude agriculture of Africa can be practiced by a mixture of Indian thrift and industry Johnston, 1897, p.
Dotson and Dotson 1968, p.
They quote with approval an Indian informant who told them when the African businessman makes a bit of money, he begins to think of himself as a big man.
First of all, this leads to drink, since he is in a position, he thinks, to afford it.
Secondly, he thinks of an additional wife or, if he is really making money, two or three.
What the Dotsons are describing here is the psychopathic personality of sub-Saharan blacks that I have documented in detail in Lynn 2002.
Further evidence for this personality difference comes from a study by Yeo et al.
ADHD is associated with psychopathic personality Mathias, Farr, David, et al.
The Aborigines are the indigenous people of Australia.
They have long been recognized as a race in classical anthropology and are one of the seven major races in the taxonomy proposed by Coon, Garn, and Birdsell 1950.
They have a distinctive profile of blood groups, about 73 percent of them having O group as compared with a little fewer than 50 percent among Europeans; the remaining 27 percent are A, and there are virtually none with the B group.
Those who migrated split from those who remained in New Guinea and today inhabit the interior highlands.
Also closely related to the Australian Aborigines are the now extinct Tasmanians.
The last pure Tasmanian died in 1876, but there are still a few mixed race Tasmanians.
It has been estimated that before the Europeans arrived there were around 300,000 Aborigines in Australia.
Their numbers were considerably reduced following the colonization of Australia by Europeans, partly as a result of diseases contracted from Europeans from which they lacked immunities, and partly as a result of Europeans killing them.
In the second half of the twentieth century, the numbers of Aborigines in the censuses of 1961, 1971, and 1981 were recorded as approximately 106,000, 139,000, and 171,000.
The rapid increase in numbers has been a result of high birth rates and a reduction of infant and child mortality.
In 1991 the Aborigines were about 1.
In the second half of the twentieth century there were three groups of Australian Aborigines.
The first, comprising 34 percent in the 1986 census, lived on Government reserves principally in the north and center of Australia.
The second group 42 percent lived in large villages of 1,000 population to substantial towns of up to 100,000 inhabitants.
The third group 24 percent lived in larger towns and cities of more than 100,000.
Many of the second and third groups have some European ancestry, while those on the reservations are largely pure Aborigines.
Children of the second and third groups typically attend schools with Europeans and virtually all of these speak English as their only language.
Australia was largely peopled by British immigrants in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
A few Germans arrived in the second half of the nineteenth century.
After the end of World War II the Australian governments believed that the population needed to be increased, particularly by Europeans.
In 1947 the government authorized the acceptance of 170,000 refugees and migrants a year from Europe.
During the next 20 years approximately 2 million European migrants entered the country, about 40 percent from Britain and about 60 percent from continental Europe, principally from Austria, Belgium, Greece, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, and Spain.
In the late 1960s the assisted passages scheme was extended to migrants from Turkey, Southwest Asia, and the Middle East.
In 1976 the first Indo-Chinese and Vietnamese boat people began arrive in Australia, and in the 1980s a number of ethnic Chinese came because of the discriminatory policies directed against the Chinese in Malaysia by the Malay government.
By the 2001 census there were approximately 170,000 Indo-Chinese in Australia, and ethnic Asians comprised approximately 4 percent of the population.
Their vocabulary is limited; for instance, they have no word for thumb Kearins, 1988.
Anthropologists in the twentieth century observed their primitive life-style.
Their main stone implements include the hafted stone axe and knife, and microliths tiny flakes mounted as barbs of spear-heads, teeth of saw-knives and so on.
Weapons consist of clubs, spears, spear throwers, and the boomerang.
Women use digging sticks to uproot yams and other roots Cole, 1965, p.
They never invented or acquired the bow and arrow Coon, 1962 and have no well-developed group hunting techniques Gould, 1969.
They never domesticated the dingo, the wild dog of Australia.
The Aborigines did however make primitive drawings of the human form which survive in the Jinmiun rock shelter in the Northern Territories and which have been dated at about 58,000 years ago Bradshaw, 1997; 1995, p.
The kangaroo and the dingo could have been domesticated by selective breeding for tameness over a number of generations.
The climate of Australia is very varied and apart from the deserts of the central region is potentially suitable for the agriculture that was developed during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by Europeans.
The Tasmanians had an even lower level of cultural development than the Aborigines of the Australian mainland.
The Russian anthropologist Vladimir Kabo 1995, p.
They were sometimes able to obtain fire from spontaneous bush fires, but if these went out they had wait for a new spontaneous bush fire or get it from a neighboring band.
They never invented the device of hafting a sharp stone into a wooded shaft to make a spear or axe Ryan, 1992.
The first attempt to estimate the intelligence of the Australian Aborigines was made by Galton 1869.
Hence in terms of the IQ scale, he estimated the Australian Aborigine IQ at 68.
Seventeen studies of the intelligence of Australian Aborigines assessed by intelligence tests have shown that this gambling business in malaysia 2020 a fairly accurate assessment.
These studies are visit web page in Table 3.
Row 1 shows the results of the first study giving an IQ of 66 obtained by Porteus with his Maze Test, a series of paper and pencil mazes of increasing complexity from which mental age is measured as the success rate of the average child of the corresponding chronological age.
The Maze Test was later incorporated into the Wechsler tests and provides a measure of g and of visualization.
The mean mental age of his sample adults was 10.
Subsequent studies give IQs in the range between 52 and 74.
The median IQ of the seventeen studies is 62 and represents the best estimate of the average intelligence of Australian Aborigines.
Further corroboration of the low intelligence of Australian Aborigines comes from 7 studies showing that they have smaller average brain size than Europeans.
Details of these are given in Lynn 2006.
The most authoritative study is that of Smith and Beals 1990 giving a brain size difference of 144cc.
Brain size is significantly associated with intelligence at a correlation of approximately 0.
Four studies have been made of the intelligence of Aboriginal-European hybrids.
The median IQ of these is 78, about midway between the IQ of Aborigines and Europeans.
I have given more details of these studies in Lynn 2006.
The educational attainment of the Aborigines is consistent with their low intelligence.
Some Australian social scientists have asserted that the poor performance of Aborigines on intelligence tests does not give a valid measure of their true abilities because the tests are biased.
For instance, Guider 1991, p.
This is not the case.
Aborigines do poorly in education, consistent with their low intelligence, showing that their low cognitive abilities are not confined to their performance on intelligence tests.
The educational attainment of Aborigines and Europeans calculated from the 1996 census by Gray, Hunter, and Schwab 2000 is shown in Table 3.
This gives the proportions of Aborigines and Europeans having skilled vocational qualifications, bachelor degrees, and higher degrees, for males and females.
At each level of qualification, fewer Aborigines have qualifications as compared with Europeans, and the higher the qualification, the lower the proportion of Aborigines.
This is shown in the final column giving the ratio of Aborigines to Europeans for the three kinds of qualification.
The principal reason for this will be that the proportion of Aborigines to Europeans declines at the higher levels of intelligence required for university bachelor and higher degree.
For all click the following article educational qualifications there is a higher proportion of Aboriginal females than males.
The reason for this may be that Aboriginal females are better socialized.
The same sex difference is present among African Americans in the United States and Africans in Britain.
Educational attainment of Australian Aborigines and Europeans in 1996 percentages Qualification Sex Aborigines Europeans Ratio 1 Skilled vocational M 16.
In the 1970s, 5 percent of Aboriginal children were in special schools for the mentally retarded, compared with 2.
In normal schools Aboriginal children are over-represented in classes for slow learners.
In the 1970s over 60 percent of Aborigines in schools in Queensland and Western Australia, and 40 percent in New South Wales, were placed in classes for the backward Callan, 1986as compared with approximately 3 percent of European children.
In Western Australia, the incidence of intellectual disability from 1953—2002 among Aborigines was 7.
By the 1970s 75 percent of Aborigines attended regular schools and some went into tertiary education, but as of 1976 no Aborigine had ever obtained a Ph.
This must call into question the assertion frequently made that the full range of intelligence is present in all races.
In the years 2000 and 2003 the Australian Council for Skeem saam omnibus time slot 2020 Research carried out studies of the attainments of representative samples of Aboriginal and European 15-year-olds in reading, mathematics, and science.
The results of the 2000 study are given by De Bertoli and Creswell 2004 and are shown in Table 3.
The standard deviations were approximately 50.
The right hand column gives the Aboriginal-European difference in standard deviation units d.
The Aborigines and Europeans differ on intelligence by 38 IQ points, equivalent to 2.
Thus, Aborigines performed a bit better on these educational tests than would be expected from their IQs.
Nevertheless, their performance on these educational tests was weak compared with that of African Americans in the United States, who score typically score about 0.
Educational attainment of Australian Aborigines and Europeans in 1996 Subject Aborigines Europeans d Reading 440 531 1.
This figure is a little higher than the IQ of 84 of indigenous South Asians given in Lynn 2006.
The higher IQs of the South Asian immigrants in Australia may be due to selective immigration of the more intelligent or the better environment in Australia.
A study of the intelligence tested with the Progressive Matriceseducational attainment, and work motivation of 11-year-old Chinese and Vietnamese immigrants in Australia, compared with a matched sample of Europeans, has been published by Dandy and Nettelbeck 2002.
The results are summarized in Table 3.
The IQ of the Chinese was 108 in relation to 1988 norms, but this needs adjusting downwards by 2 IQ points to allow for the Flynn effect.
This corrected figure of 106 is virtually identical to the IQ of 105 of indigenous East Asians derived from numerous studies given in Lynn 2006.
The authors do not give the IQ of the Vietnamese but say that this did not differ significantly from the Europeans, so a figure of 100 has been entered in the table.
A number of Vietnamese emigrants have been ethnic Chinese, but the percentage of these in the sample is not given.
The right hand column gives the number of hours of weekly homework of the Chinese, Vietnamese, and Europeans and shows that the Chinese did the most homework followed by the Vietnamese, while the Europeans did the least.
These differences are all statistically significant.
The homework differences suggest that the Chinese and Vietnamese have a work motivation advantage over the Europeans.
The mathematical abilities and language abilities of the three groups were assessed by teachers.
Chinese and Vietnamese were assessed as having significantly higher mathematical abilities but not language abilities, unsurprisingly as the children had only been in Australia for an average of seven years and probably spoke their own languages at home.
Figures released by the Australian Department of Employment, Education, and Training for proportions of students enrolled in higher education in 1991 in relation to the numbers aged 17—64 in the population for six groups categorized by place of birth are given in Table 3.
The proportions of the groups in higher education are expressed as odds ratios with the proportion for the total population set at 1.
It will be seen that East Asians from Hong Kong including a small number from Macaowho are all ethnic Chinese, are the most over-represented 2.
East Asians from Malaysia including a small number from Bruneiwho are mainly ethnic Chinese, come next 1.
Native-born Europeans come next, followed by foreign-born Europeans from English speaking countries, and finally foreign-born Europeans from non-English speaking countries from Southeast Europe Yugoslavia and Greece.
The rank order of ethnic origin parallels almost exactly the IQs of these groups.
Proportions of students enrolled in higher education odds ratios Group OR Europeans Native 1.
It will be seen that East Asians do best by a large margin.
These are followed by native English speakers from Britain, Ireland, etc.
Marks obtained by applicants for tertiary education standard errors in parentheses Group Score Group Score East Asia 78.
Gregory and Daly 1997 have given figures for 1980 and 1990 from the census and expressed the incomes and earnings of Aboriginal men as a percentage of those of Europeans.
Their figures are given in Table 3.
Incomes are for all men and include unemployment benefits, while earnings are for employed men.
It will be seen that the incomes of Aboriginal men improved over the 10-year period from 50.
The reason for this is that the Australian government raised the welfare benefits for Aborigines.
The earnings of Aboriginal men also improved over the 10 year period, from 65.
Incomes of Aboriginal men as percentages of Europeans Year Group Aborigines Europeans 1980 All 50.
A survey carried out in 1973 found that 12.
In 2004 there were only 61 Aboriginal medical practitioners out of 44,144, and 58 Aboriginal solicitors out of 15,666.
The Aborigines have the high rate of unemployment typical of groups with low IQs.
Unemployment rates of Aborigines and Europeans from 1981 through 1996 are given from census returns in Table 3.
In the 1981 census the unemployment rate of Europeans in Australia averaged across the eight states was 6.
In the 1986 census the unemployment rate of Europeans was 9 percent, while for the Aborigines was 35 percent.
In 1991 the unemployment rate of Aborigines was 30.
They theorize that the high rate of unemployment among the Aborigines may be caused by their high rate of crime, since employers are reluctant to employ those with criminal records especially if they are Aborigines.
The same disparity was present in the 1996 census Thompson, 2003.
Unemployment rates of Aborigines and Europeans percentages Year Aborigines Europeans 1981 25.
The data are obtained from a survey of a representative sample of 4,445 individuals Maani, 1994.
Row 1 shows that Aborigines had by far the greatest unemployment at 39.
Rows 2, 3, and 4 give unemployment rates for first generation immigrants.
Row 2 shows that immigrants from English Speaking ES countries mainly Britain and Ireland had a very low rate of unemployment 0.
Row 3 shows that immigrants from European Non-English Speaking ENES countries mainly Greece and the former Yugoslavia had a higher rate of unemployment 7.
Rows 5, 6, and 7 give unemployment rates for second-generation immigrants.
Row 5 shows that immigrants from English Speaking ES countries still had a very low rate of unemployment 1.
Row 6 shows that immigrants from European Non-English Speaking ENES countries also had a low rate of unemployment 3.
There are three particular points of interest in these unemployment data.
First, first generation immigrants generally have higher rates of unemployment than second-generation immigrants, especially those from Non-English Speaking European and Asian countries, many of whom do not have a good command of English or qualifications.
Many of the second-generation immigrants have acquired a good command of English and educational qualifications, so their unemployment rate is much lower.
Second, the second-generation Asian immigrants have almost negligible unemployment.
The Asians are evidently the model minority in Australia, just as they are in the United States.
Third, all immigrants and even first generation immigrants from Non-English Speaking European and Asian countries, many of whom do not have qualifications or a good command of English, have much lower rates of unemployment than Aborigines.
Unemployment of Aborigines and immigrants, 1985—1988 Group Weeks Unemployed 1 Australian Aborigines 39.
It was shown by Wilson 1982 that in the 1970s the homicide rate among Aborigines was approximately 10 times greater and convictions for serious assault approximately five times greater than for whites.
He considered that many serious assaults among the Aborigines are unreported and that the true incidence is between 10 to 15 times greater than among Europeans.
In New South Wales during the years 1973—1976, the rate of imprisonment of Aborigine men was approximately 20 times that of Europeans, and of Aborigine women more info 30 times greater than that of Europeans Callan, 1986.
Data for 1986 show that Aborigines were over-represented in prison in all the eight Australian states by factors odds ratios ranging from 3.
Further data for the early 1990s have been compiled by Broadhurst 1997.
His results for imprisonment are given in Table 3.
Row 1 shows that for juveniles the ratio of imprisonment was 48 times higher for Aborigines than for Europeans he does not give the actual rates.
Row 2 gives the actual rates of imprisonment for adults for 1992 and shows that this was 26 times higher for Aborigines than for Europeans.
Imprisonment rates of Aborigines and Europeans per 1,000 population, 1990s Crime Aborigines Europeans Ratio Juveniles - - 48 Adults 28.
He analyzes the possibility that there could be racial bias in police arrests or court convictions but finds that this is not the case because the police do not arrest Aborigines proportionately more than their crime rates warrant, and because Aborigines report much higher rates of assault by other Aborigines, as compared with Europeans.
Thus it is the Europeans who are responsible for the high crime rates of the Aborigines.
The fertility of Aborigines has been about double those of Australian Europeans.
The Department of Health of Western Australia has published figures for women confined in the state in 1986 showing that the fertility rate per 1,000 women was 138.
Aboriginal teenage fertility among 15—19 year olds was 167 per 1,000 women as compared with 19.
Aborigines have high rates of alcoholism, tobacco consumption, and petrol sniffing.
All these forms of drug abuse are characteristic of groups with low intelligence, largely because these are unaware of the dangers to their health Yip, Mashhood, and Naude, 2005.
High rates of alcohol abuse have frequently been reported.
For instance, a study found that 53 percent of Aboriginal men and 19 percent of Aboriginal women reported drinking nine or more standard drinks per drinking session compared with 4 percent men and 0.
A survey carried out in the 1980s found that 71 percent of male and 76 percent of female Aborigines were cigarettes smokers, compared with 39 percent of male and 42 percent of female Europeans Hogg, 1995.
Another study carried out at about the same time found that 50 percent of male and 49 percent of female Aborigines were cigarettes smokers, compared with 28 percent of male and 20 percent of female Europeans Perkins, Sanson-Fisher, and Blunden, 1994.
The same study found that Aborigines were significantly more likely to have used marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and petrol sniffing.
Herrnstein and Murray showed in The Bell Curve that race differences in intelligence go some way to explaining differences in infant mortality.
They found that the white mothers of infants who had died in the first year after leaving hospital had an IQ 6 points lower than the average.
This confirmed an earlier study by Savage 1946 who also found that the mothers of infants who died had below average IQs.
It has also been shown that intelligence is related to adult mortality.
These were conscripted between 1965 and 1971 at the age of 18 into the military and intelligence tested.
They were followed up in 1982, when they were aged between 22 and 40, and it was found that 523 had died.
These had an IQ 4 points lower than those who remained alive, a statistically highly significant difference.
By far the largest cause of death was accidents of various kinds 389of which motor vehicle accidents 217 were the most frequent.
A second study confirming the association between intelligence and life expectancy has been published by Whalley and Deary 2001.
They took 2,230 babies born in Aberdeen Scotland in 1921, whose intelligence was measured when they were 11 years old.
They were traced in 1997 that it was found that the IQs of those who had died were 4.
The difference was greater for women, among whom the survivors had an IQ 4.
The reason for this sex difference was largely that the men who died in World War II had higher than average IQs.
Further studies of this sample showing that childhood IQ predicts good or poor health over the life span has been published by Batty and Deary 2004.
There are three principal reasons why intelligence contributes to life expectancy.
First, individuals with high intelligence have fewer accidents because they make fewer misjudgments.
Conversely, those with lower IQs make more misjudgments.
Some of these misjudgments result in accidents and some of these are fatal.
Second, intelligence is to some degree determined by early nutrition and health, so poor nutrition and health in infancy can affect both intelligence and life expectancy.
Third, intelligent individuals look after themselves more effectively and take more care of their health by not smoking, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, eating sensibly, not allowing themselves to become overweight, exercising, and consulting their doctors when they are unwell.
For instance, in the United States about 15 percent fewer blacks than whites get themselves vaccinated against influenza with the result that more die from the disease Ostbye et al.
In Australia, Aborigines have much poorer health than Australian Europeans, as would be expected from their lower IQs.
Infant mortality rates of Aborigines have been about three times greater than those of Europeans, while life expectancy has been much lower.
Some statistics showing these differences are given in Table 3.
Row 1 shows that in 1976, the infant mortality rates per 1,000 infants were 51.
By 1980, the rates were 33.
Life expectancy in New South Wales in 1978 is given in row 4 Fraser, 1986.
Generally in Australia life expectancy of Aborigines is between 15 to 20 years lower than that of Europeans, death rates for young Aborigines are 2.
Rows 5 and 6 give life expectancy in 1996 for men and women and show that life expectancy has increased for Aborigines and Europeans but remains substantially greater for Europeans Thompson, 2003.
The lower life expectancy of Aborigines is caused principally by their greater death rates from disease, including sexually transmitted diseases, heart disease and cancer caused by high rates of smoking, road accidents caused by alcohol abuse, homicide, poisoning, and drowning.
Infant mortality per 1,000 population and life expectancy of Aborigines and Europeans Mortality Year Aborigines Europeans 1 Infant mortality 1976 51.
These appear among Aboriginal children and young adolescents in their high rates of conduct disorder, and high rates expulsion from schools for anti-social behavior.
In New South Wales in the 1990s, Aborigines comprised 3 percent of the school population but 12 percent of those suspended and expelled Gray, Hunter, and Schwab, 2000.
The high incidence of dysfunctional personality is also expressed in their high rates of crime, shown in section 7, and in their high rates of alcohol abuse, their confident self-concept, and high incidence of domestic violence.
Alcohol abuse is common among Aborigines.
It is estimated that among men approximately 30 percent are heavy drinkers compared with 5 percent of Europeans, while among women 3 percent are heavy drinkers compared with 1 percent of Europeans.
It is also known as self-esteem.
People with a strong self-concept or high self-esteem have a high opinion of themselves, their families, their social capacities, and their abilities.
A strong self-concept is a characteristic of dysfunctional personality and anti-social personality disorder.
Measures of the self-concept are divided into the six domains of family, self-acceptance, satisfaction with school, academic achievement, peer acceptance, and career.
These are remarkable results considering the reality of the low levels of achievement of the Aborigines in schools and employment.
Similar results however have been found for African-Americans in the United States and Africans in Britain.
A number of social scientists have proposed that the poor educational and occupational achievements of all these minorities are attributable to their weak self-concept and low self-esteem, but the evidence does not support this.
Domestic violence between husbands and wives is another characteristic of dysfunctional personality for which there is a high incidence among the Australian Aborigines.
A study in Western Australia in 1994 found that Aboriginal women were 45 times more likely to experience violence from their husbands than Europeans Donnan, 2001.
An Australian demographer has written: In every conceivable comparison the Aborigines stand in stark contrast to the general Australian population.
They have the highest growth rate, the highest birth rate, the highest death rate, the worst health and housing, and the lowest educational, occupational, economic, social, and legal status of any identifiable section of the Australian population Fraser, 1986, p.
All this is indisputably correct.
The life style of the Aborigines in central Australia has been graphically described by a German sociologist, Hans Schneider, who made a study of Aboriginal settlements in 1986.
He observed that the Europeans had built houses for the Aborigines, but the Aborigines do not accept these houses with the result that they are usually unoccupied.
Many of them have been deserted, vandalized, or even destroyed.
In order to prevent the Aborigines destroying their houses, these are now prefabricated out of steel-plated units.
Most of the inhabitants live in self-constructed shacks made from branches or sheets of corrugated iron, erected outside of and around the settlement.
They have not accustomed themselves to garbage disposal with the result that the surrounding bush land is littered with old cans, bottles, tires, transistor radios, and batteries.
Rusty car bodies and unauthorized garbage dumps can be seen everywhere….
The health, education and living standards are well below the Australian average.
Almost all the inhabitants are unemployed and fully dependent on social security.
They just sit around in a state of boredom and hopelessness.
They do not send their children to school.
The Aborigines have no problem operating machines or driving cars and tractors, but they have not learned how to service and repair them.
Faulty machinery is simply left where it breaks down and transistor radios are thrown away when batteries are flat.
Under the supervision of whites they are able to establish a plantation or cattle station and will work there, but as soon as this supervision and instruction is withdrawn the project collapses Schneider, 1992, pp.
The Australian Aborigines are a racial underclass with the same characteristics of the black underclass of the United States, Britain, and Brazil, but they are an even more serious social problem.
They have much lower intelligence with an average IQ of 62, as compared with approximately 85 of blacks in the United States and Britain, and they have worse rates of educational attainment, unemployment, crime, teenage motherhood, welfare dependency, alcoholism, and the other social pathologies of the underclass.
In addition they have high fertility that is about double that of Europeans, and although this is to some degree offset by their high mortality, their numbers are growing to the extent that they are approximately doubling every generation.
There can be little doubt that the syndrome of social pathologies of the Australian Aborigines has a genetic basis.
Their shorter gestation times and typically small brain size that underlies their low intelligence, poor educational attainment, and low socioeconomic status cannot be explained by environmental deprivation or European racism.
None of this is recognized or at least articulated by any of the Australian social scientists whose work is cited in this chapter.
None of them even make any mention of the contribution of low intelligence and high psychopathic personality to the social pathology of the Aboriginal underclass.
There is a striking contrast between the dire position of the Aborigines and the high IQ and mathematical abilities of recent Chinese immigrant children shown in Table 3.
The high abilities of the Chinese immigrant children should not be surprising.
The results are consistent with those of Chinese immigrant children in Britain, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United States.
The first European to discover Brazil was the Portuguese naval commander Pedro Alvares Cabral, who found the land in 1500 and declared it a Portuguese colony.
It remained a Portuguese colony for a little over 300 years, during which time many Portuguese migrated to Brazil to seek their fortunes, at first principally by establishing sugar plantations and later from cotton and coffee.
Brazil remained a colony of Portugal until 1823, when a white Portuguese named Dom Pedro declared independence and proclaimed casino palavas 2020 emperor.
At the time the Portuguese discovered Brazil, they were already bringing Africans from West Africa to Portugal for use as slaves for domestic work.
The first African slaves were sold in Lisbon in 1441 and a little over 1,000 were sold in the next two to three years.
In the middle decades of the sixteenth century the Portuguese colonists in Brazil needed laborers for their sugar plantations and for this purpose they transported black Africans as slaves.
The first of these arrived in 1538 and they continued to be transported for around three hundred years until the middle of the nineteenth century.
The African slaves were obtained from Portuguese Guinea now Ghanathe Congo, Angola, and Mozambique.
Over the course of some three centuries it is estimated that a total of around 3 to 4 million African slaves were shipped to Brazil.
The men were used largely to work in the sugar, cotton, and coffee plantations and for other agricultural work.
The women were used principally as domestic servants.
During the nineteenth century the majority of black slaves became free, either by running away or because their owners freed them.
Slavery was abolished in Brazil in 1888.
Brazil is a multiracial society in which the principal racial and ethnic groups are Europeans largely Portuguese but including significant numbers of Italian, German, and other European descentJapanese, blacks, Native American Indians, and hybrids.
The blacks in Brazil are known as Pretos blacks and the mulattos and other mixed race individuals as Prados brownsbut as these terms will be unfamiliar to many readers the terms blacks and mulattos will be used.
The offspring of whites and Native American Indians are known as Mestizos, as elsewhere in Latin America, but there are relatively few of these in Brazil, and in censuses and surveys they are included with mulattos.
Brazil has frequently been regarded as a racially egalitarian society in which there is no racial prejudice by whites against blacks, mulattos, mestizos, and Native American Indians.
In the first half of the twentieth century this was not entirely correct.
For instance, many of the higher class hotels only admitted whites.
This and other forms of racial discrimination in public places article source made illegal in 1951 following a well-publicized case in which a black North American dancer named Katherine Dunham was refused entry to the Hotel Esplanda in Sao Paulo.
Nevertheless, the Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre 1945, p.
Officials at UNESCO were impressed by this claim and in the 1950s sponsored a number of studies of Brazil in the belief that these would reveal the secret of a racially tolerant, unprejudiced, and egalitarian multiracial nation that would serve as a model for other societies, particularly the United States, in which whites were prejudiced against blacks and other non-white racial minorities and discriminated against them.
A number of others have noted a socioeconomic status hierarchy related to skin color in Brazil, e.
As early as the 1940s the tendency of the three major racial groups in Brazil to live in segregated areas of towns and cities was noted by Pierson 1942 in a study of the city of Salvador in the north east of the country.
He found that skin color varied with the economic status of the neighborhood.
The poorest areas of the city were mainly inhabited by blacks and dark skinned mulattos, while the more affluent areas were mainly inhabited by whites and light skinned mulattos.
Fifty years later the same conclusion was reached by Telles 1992 for the whole of Brazil.
Segregation by color is greatest among the higher income groups who can choose where they live and is lower among the poor who have less choice.
Segregation is not confined to whites and non-whites.
There is significant segregation between blacks and mulattos…suggesting that mulattos also disdain blacks pp.
From the 1960s onwards a number of social scientists have shown that Brazil has a pronounced racial hierarchy in which whites are mainly at the top together with a small number of ethnic Japanese, and blacks and mulattos are largely at the bottom.
Far from being a racially egalitarian society, extremes of racial social inequalities in Brazil are much greater than in the United States and Europe.
Many whites have an affluent life style while many blacks and mulattos live in abject poverty in urban slums on the edge of cities known as favelas.
Thus in Rio de Janeiro clustered on the hill and mountain sides that overlook the fashionable beaches and elegant shopping and high rise centers, the favelas are slums in which only a small proportion of households have electricity, running water, or sewage facilities.
Juramento, for example, like most other favelas, is a self-contained realm of the very poor, with 30,000 residences and a dozen or so entry points.
There is no glass in the windows of the shacks, no electricity or water, other than what can be tapped from the city supplies.
There are no official street names, and no mail service, or telephones lines Surratt and Inciardi, 1998, p.
The disenchantment of blacks and mulattos with their disadvantaged position in Brazil was widely expressed on May 13, 1988, when celebrations were held throughout Brazil to commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of the abolition of slavery.
Many of the blacks and mulattos considered that there was little to celebrate because they had not achieved economic and social equality with whites.
To the contrary, they remained highly over-represented among the poorest strata of society.
This has resulted in a large hybrid population of mulattos and mestizos, and in interbreeding between mulattos and mestizos.
Most of the indigenous Native American Indian population was wiped out by disease and warfare, with the result that most of the mixed race are black-white hybrids or mulattos.
For this reason the Portuguese term Pardos browns is often used interchangeably with mulattos in the writings of social scientists.
There is a relatively small population of ethnic Japanese in Brazil.
The first of these came as immigrants in 1908, primarily to work as laborers on the coffee plantations in the southern region of Sao Paulo.
Or, as Masterson and Funada-Classen 2004, p.
The racial composition of the population has been documented in a series of censuses.
The first of these was taken in 1872 and provided statistics on the numbers of the principal racial and ethnic groups.
Further population censuses providing these statistics were taken in 1940, 1950, 1960, 1980, and 1991.
The results have been summarized by Wood and Lovell 1992 and Lovell 1999 and given in Table 4.
In the 1872 census three racial categories were used.
These were Blanco whitePrado brown or mulattoand Preto black.
In the 1940 and later censuses a fourth category was added of Amarelo yellow.
These are Asians and are very largely ethnic Japanese.
In the 2000 census the category of yellow was replaced by other, and included Native American Indians and unknowns.
The data set out in Table 4.
The increase in the number and proportion of whites from 1872 to 1940 was principally due to high rates of immigration, particularly from Portugal, Continue reading, and Italy, and also from Germany.
Immigration of Europeans was encouraged by the government by the provision of subsidies.
The objective was to increase the proportion of whites in the population.
The decline in the proportion of whites from 1940 to 2000 was due to a reduction of immigration and to lower fertility, as compared with non-whites.
The proportion of blacks has fallen steadily from 20 percent in 1972 to 6 percent in 2000.
The reason for this is that large numbers of blacks have interbred with mulattos producing children classified as mulattos.
From 1940 to 2000 the proportion of mulattos almost doubled from 21 percent to 40 percent.
The proportion of Asians almost entirely ethnic Japanese in the population remained virtually steady from 0.
In the 2000 census the figure increased to one percent because the category was widened to include Native American Indians and unknowns.
It can be inferred that the numbers of Asians remained at about 0.
There are racial go here ethnic differences in intelligence in Brazil that are summarized in Table 4.
Row 1 gives the IQs for the four groups from a study of 10 year olds tested with the Progressive Matrices the Japanese, Europeans, mulattos, and blacks.
The numbers in this study are given in row 2.
The Japanese have the highest IQ at 99, followed by the Europeans 95the mulattos 81 and the blacks 71.
There have been two further studies of the intelligence of blacks in Brazil.
So far as it has proved possible to ascertain, there are no intelligence data for Native American Indians.
Percentages of races in Brazil censuses Race 1872 1940 1950 1960 1980 2000 White 38 64 62 61 54 53 Mulatto 42 21 26 29 39 40 Blacks 20 15 11 9 6 6 Asians 0 0.
Race and ethnic differences in intelligence Test Japanese European Mulatto Black Reference 1 SPM 99 95 81 71 Fernandez, 2001 2 Numbers 186 735 718 223 Fernandez, 2001 3 DAM - - - 70 Paine et al.
Rows 1 and 2 give data for 1950 from the census of that year showing the highest high school completion rates and the highest rates of literacy for Europeans followed by mulattos, and the lowest rates for blacks Andrews, 1992.
There are no data for the Japanese.
Row 3 gives racial differences in the percentages that had obtained a university degree, found in the 1980 census, and shows the highest percentage among Japanese, followed by Europeans, mulattos, and blacks Hanchard, 1994.
Row 4 gives the percentages of literacy in 1991 showing the same racial hierarchy Lovell, 1999.
Rows 5 and 6 give the percentages that had completed high school found in the 1996 Demographic and Health Survey of 13,000 households and show the same racial gradient Burgard, 2002.
Row 7 gives the percentages of literacy in 1999 showing the racial hierarchy was still present.
Row 8 gives the percentages of 25 to 64 year olds that had obtained a university degree, found in the 1996 National Household Survey.
All the percentages rose considerably over the half century but the racial differentials remained with the highest percentage among Europeans, followed by mulattos, and the lowest percentage among blacks.
Race and ethnic differences in educational attainment and literacy percentages Measure Year Japanese Whites Mulattos Blacks 1 High school 1950 - 4.
It was found that whites and Asians performed best At the start of the twenty-first century blacks and mulattos were about half the population of Brazil but were only 8 percent of university students.
To remedy this situation several Brazilian states have required universities to introduce positive discrimination in an attempt to increase the numbers of blacks and mulattos.
The first of these was Rio de Janeiro, which in 2002 required the State University of Rio to reserve 40 percent of its places for blacks and mulattos.
It was found impossible to find sufficient numbers of blacks and mulattos who could pass the entrance examinations, so in 2003 the quota reserved for blacks and mulattos was reduced to 20 percent.
In 2004 the University of Brazilia also set a quota of 20 percent of places for blacks and mulattos.
The effect of these quotas was that a number of whites were rejected for universities and some of these claimed to be mulattos in the hope of securing admission under the less stringent admissions examinations.
The universities countered the attempts of whites to gain places by this subterfuge by requiring applicants to submit their photographs with their applications and had these scrutinized by a commission to check that all those who claimed to be mulattos were genuine Davidson, 2004.
Racial and ethnic differences in socioeconomic status and earnings in Brazil reflect those in intelligence and education.
They are shown in Table 4.
Row 1 gives average monthly incomes of European, mulatto, and black men in Rio de Janeiro in 1960 in Cruzeiros dollars found in the 1960 census.
Row 2 gives average monthly incomes of Japanese, European, mulatto, and black men in the 1980 in Cruzeiros dollars the incomes of the Japanese are given by Dwyer and Lovell, 1990.
The Japanese have by far the highest incomes, followed by Europeans; the mulattos have average incomes slightly more than half of those of Europeans, while the average incomes of blacks are the lowest.
Row 3 gives average monthly incomes of European, mulatto, and black men in Sao Paulo given in the 1991 census.
The same racial disparities are present with mulattos having average incomes slightly more than half of those of Europeans, while the average incomes of blacks are the lowest.
The racial disparities decreased a little over the 31 year period.
In 1960, mulattos had 55 percent of the earnings of whites and blacks had 47 percent of the earnings of whites.
In 1991 these differentials had narrowed slightly to mulattos having 59 percent and blacks 57 percent of the earnings of whites.
These incomes are much higher than those given in row 2 partly because of high inflation in the 1980s and partly because Sao Paulo is one of the most affluent cities in Brazil.
The incomes of the Japanese were not recorded in the 1991 census.
The racial gradient in earnings produces different proportions living in poverty.
Row 4 gives the percentages living in poverty found in a survey carried out in 1987 and shows that 24 percent of white families lived in poverty, mulattos had nearly double the percentage, and blacks had a slightly greater percentage than mulattos.
The same racial differences are present in occupational status.
Rows 5, 6, and 7 give the percentages in professional occupations found in the censuses of 1950, 1980, and 1991.
In all three years Europeans had about twice the proportion in professional occupations as mulattos, while blacks had the lowest proportion.
The proportions of the Japanese in professional occupations were not recorded in the censuses.
Rows 8 and 9 give the percentages unemployed in the 1991 census for men and women.
For both sexes unemployment was lowest among Europeans, intermediate among mulattos, and highest among blacks.
Race and ethnic differences in earnings and socioeconomic status Measure Japanese Europeans Mulattos Blacks 1 Income, 1960 - 11,601 6,492 5,444 2 Income, 1980 35,610 21,867 11,053 9,004 3 Income, 1991 - 224,752 132,400 129,165 4 Poverty, 1987 - 24% 44% 46% 5 Professionals, 1950 - 4.
They report correlations between light skin color with educational attainment of 0.
All the correlations are highly statistically significant.
Although the majority of Japanese immigrants to Brazil came initially to work as indentured farm laborers, they rapidly became upwardly mobile.
Within a generation most of them became owner-farmers.
It will be seen in Tables 4.
Japanese earnings were thus 61 percent higher than those of whites.
Dwyer and Lovell 1990, p.
Second, they placed a great deal of emphasis on education….
They do not mention high intelligence as one of the factors contributing to the social success of the Japanese.
Racial differences in the percentages that were malnourished as determined by the prevalence of stunting low stature, defined as having height two or more standard deviations below the international reference standard mean found in the 1996 Demographic and Health Survey of 13,000 households are given in Table 4.
This shows that the prevalence of malnutrition was lowest among the Europeans, somewhat higher among the mulattos, and highest among the blacks.
Malnutrition adversely affects intelligence Lynn, 1990 and the greater prevalence of malnutrition among the mulattos and blacks will contribute to the differences in intelligence and educational attainment.
However, the percentages of malnutrition are quite low even in the blacks at 17.
The race differences in the prevalence of malnutrition and intelligence can be understood as arising from genotype-environment correlation as described by Plomin 1994through which those with high intelligence provide their children with good nutrition.
Race and ethnic differences in malnutrition Measure Europeans Mulattos Blacks Reference Malnutrition 9.
This has been shown by Wood and Carvalho 1988 and by Lovell 1999 in analyses of the censuses from 1950 through 1991.
The results are expressed in terms of life expectancy at birth and are shown in Table 4.
Mulattos and blacks have been combined in these analyses to a single category of Afro-Brazilians.
It will be seen that in all four censuses Afro-Brazilians have lower life expectancy than whites.
Wood and Carvalho show that these differences are present within income and educational categories, although the differentials are reduced.
Most of these differences are due to higher infant mortality and child mortality among mulattos and blacks than among whites.
The authors suggest that these differences may be due to discrimination.
It is doubtful whether this can provide a full explanation.
Intelligence is a significant determinant of life expectancy and differences in intelligence are likely to be partly responsible.
Life expectancy at birth for whites and Afro-Brazilians Group 1950 1960 1980 1991 Whites 47.
Infant mortality has declined for both groups but the differential has actually widened over this period.
Infant mortality of whites and Afro-Brazilians Group 1977 1987 1993 Whites 76 43 37 Afro-Brazilians 96 72 62 Studies in the United States and Britain have found that whites have a greater propensity than blacks to marry.
This is attributable to the greater propensity of whites to form long-term male-female pair bonds.
This is expressed in higher rates of marriage and stable male-female cohabitation among whites, and conversely among blacks in lower rates of marriage and co-habitation and higher rates of single motherhood.
The same differences are present in Brazil.
Notice that in all years whites had the highest proportion married, followed by mulattos, while blacks had the lowest proportion.
Further data confirming these differences have been presented by Goldani 1990 from the 1984 Household Survey.
Among those aged 50, white women had been married for an average of 29 years, brown women for an average of 22 years, skeem saam omnibus time slot 2020 black women for an average of 19 years.
Among black women, 56 percent had lived more than half their adult lives without a husband, as compared with 48 percent of brown, and 42 click to see more of white.
Thus the mulattos fall intermediate between the whites and the blacks but are closer to the blacks, as they do in earnings.
Goldani 1990 has shown that the same racial gradient is present for single motherhood, where the percentages of single women who had had a child were 21 percent of blacks, 13 percent of mulattos, and 8 percent of whites.
In the 2000 census, 11.
Total fertility rates by race in Brazil Year Whites Mulattos Blacks 1940 6.
The results total fertility rates are shown in Table 4.
It will be seen that in all five years whites had lower fertility than mulattos.
In 1940, 1950, and 1960, the lowest fertility was among blacks.
In 1980 and 1984 fertility had become lowest among whites, but remained lower among blacks than among mulattos.
The consistently lower fertility of blacks as compared with mulattos is the only exception to the gradient of whites—mulattos—blacks that is present for all other social and economic phenomena.
It has not proved possible to find a definitive explanation for this anomalous phenomenon.
Probably the most important factor is higher infant mortality among blacks and that many blacks have not included babies that died in the first year of life on their census returns.
The reduction in numbers of children in all three groups from 1960 onwards reflects the demographic transition to smaller family size that took place in the twentieth century throughout the world, except in sub-Saharan Africa.
The greater reduction in numbers of children among whites as compared with mulattos and blacks reflects a virtually universal tendency for the better educated, the higher socioeconomic classes, and the more intelligent to reduce their family size to a greater extent than the poorly educated, the less intelligent, and the lower socioeconomic classes.
The effect of this in Brazil has been that in 1980 and 1984 the fertility of the mulattos and blacks was about 50 percent higher than that of whites.
This will inevitably lead to higher proportions of mulattos and blacks in the future population, extrapolating further the trend shown in Table 4.
There is a widespread perception in Brazil that blacks and mulattos commit crime more than whites.
Thus, Caldeira 1996, p.
Thus the police confronted the task of controlling black slaves in an urban environment…in a context where slaves enjoyed a degree of freedom, anonymity, and distance from their masters, the need for efficient social control was the primary motive for the establishment of a standing police force in Rio de Janeiro Mitchell and Wood, 1998, p.
Total fertility rates by race in Brazil Year Whites Mulattos Blacks 1940 6.
Police violence against black and mulatto criminals and suspected criminals is far greater than in the United States.
For instance, in 1991, the police killed 1,171 people, largely blacks and mulattos, in Sao Paulo, compared with 27 in New York City Mitchell and Wood, 1998.
In 1992, the military police used machine guns to quell a fight between gangs in the Carandiru prison in Sao Paulo and killed 111 largely mulatto and black prisoners.
A further shocking killing took place a year later when the police shot and killed eight black and mulatto street children who were sleeping on the steps of the Church of the Candelaria in Rio de Janeiro.
There are a number of gangs of black and mulatto homeless street children in Rio de Janeiro who have been abandoned by their parents or who have left home and manage to stay alive by street robberies.
The police deal with this problem by going out at night in unofficial patrols and killing them.
According to a report by the U.
Department of State 1997 these nocturnal vigilante patrols are responsible for scores of deaths every year.
The repressive role of the police and the criminal justice system against criminal mulattos and blacks enjoys a measure of support from whites.
In a study of attitudes towards crime and punishment, Alba Zaluar 1993 found a substantial majority of higher socioeconomic status whites supported the death penalty and forced labor during incarceration.
Statistics on race differences in crime indexed by rates of imprisonment are given by Telles 2004, p.
Further statistics on race differences in crime were collected in the 1988 National Household Survey, a study of a representative sample of approximately 80,000 citizens.
The survey asked the respondents whether they had been assaulted during the last year and if so, by whom.
The results have been analyzed by Mitchell and Wood 1998who calculated that compared with whites, mulattos were 1.
Most of the assaults were perpetrated by acquaintances or police.
In regard to assault by acquaintances, mulattos were 1.
In regard to assaults by police, blacks were 2.
There was no difference between mulattos and whites in the reported rates of assault by the police.
The results suggest that police violence is much more strongly directed against blacks than against whites and mulattos.
Convictions for homicide in 2000 in Sao Paulo have been reported as 56.
The percentages of the races convicted of homicide for 2003 for the whole of Brazil have been given by Lopes 2006 and are shown in Table 4.
It will be seen that the Asians have the lowest homicide rate at 0.
Mulattos have a relatively high homicide rate at 49.
The high crime rates of blacks and mulattos in Brazil is a further instance of a well established pattern of race differences in crime in the United States, Britain, and internationally and is attributable partly to low intelligence.
Percentages of races in population and convictions for homicide, 2003 Race % Population % Homicide White 53 39.
In 1993 an observer wrote crime is so high that law-abiding citizens live behind bars, public parks are locked behind iron railings, and no-one stops at red traffic lights at night for fear of being attacked…many Brazilians are giving up on the self-styled land of the future and plotting escape.
Those who have lost hope can be seen in the enormous queues for visas outside the US consulate in Rio.
Consular officials estimate that between 2m and 3m Brazilians live in the US, most illegally…the Japanese consulate in Sao Paulo is packed with Nisei or Japanese descendants, returning to their homeland Lamb, 1993, p.
Surveys carried out in 2000 have been summarized by Penha-Lopes 2004.
The results are shown in Table 4.
Mulattos and blacks were combined in these surveys.
Whites still had substantially more education than mulattos and blacks, and considerably higher earnings, while mulattos and blacks had substantially higher rates of infant and child mortality and poorer living conditions indexed by a lower percentage possessing running water in their homes.
In a second study, Leal 2006 has reported data on race differences in 2000 in a sample of 9,633 postpartum women in Rio de Janeiro.
The results are summarized in Table 4.
Here we see that blacks were the most over-represented among teenage mothers, those with less than four years of education, smokers while pregnant, and with syphilitic babies.
Whites were under-represented, while mulattos were intermediate.
The author attributes these differences to discrimination.
The social gradient in Brazil in which whites together with a small number of ethnic Japanese are at the top of the socioeconomic hierarchy, mulattos come next, and blacks do poorly in respect of earnings, education, socioeconomic status, health, and mortality is virtually universally attributed by social scientists to discrimination by whites against mulattos and blacks.
Mitchell and Wood 1998, p.
They suggest that other factors might be that non-white children live in more hazardous areas of cities and that non-white mothers receive a poorer quality of education.
In a discussion of the fact that male earnings in the 1980 census were approximately twice as high for whites as for mulattos and blacks, Webster and Lovell 1998, p.
The only social scientists to comment on the high achievements of the Japanese are Dwyer and Lovell 1990 who attribute these partly to their industriousness, ambition, persistence, and ability to delay gratification.
Apart from this, social scientists routinely ignore the achievements of the Japanese.
It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they realize that the successes of the Japanese are an embarrassment for their thesis that the failures of blacks and mulattos are attributable to discrimination emerald queen casino concerts 2020 them by whites.
It discussion slots lv bonus codes july 2020 nothing impossible to demonstrate that discrimination plays any part in the poor performance of blacks and mulattos, although it is not improbable that it exists.
None of the social scientists whose work has been cited make any mention of possible race differences in intelligence that might explain why mulattos and blacks perform so much more poorly than whites.
The most straightforward explanation for the racial gradient in education, earnings, and socioeconomic status in Brazil is that these are largely determined by differences in intelligence.
This explains why the Japanese do best, followed by Europeans, and then by mulattos, who have both white and black ancestry, while those who achieve least are the blacks.
There are five major ethnic and racial groups in Britain consisting of indigenous whites, Jews, blacks from Africa and from the West Indies known as Afro-Caribbeans, South Asians mainly from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, and Chinese from China, Hong Kong, and Singapore.
The Jews were permitted to settle in the 1650s and by the nineteenth century had established a significant presence as bankers, among whom the Rothschilds were the leading family.
By 1880 it has been estimated that there were around 60,000 Jews in Britain.
In the period from 1880—1920 a number of Jews came to Britain from Russia to escape persecution, and their numbers increased to around 300,000 in 1920.
Most of these settled in London and some in Glasgow.
There was some further immigration of Jews principally professionals and academics to Britain in the 1930s and during World War II to escape persecution in Germany.
Approximately 60,000 Jews entered Britain during this period.
The first blacks came to England in 1555 when five were brought from Ghana to London.
The British slave trade began in 1563, but was on a small scale until the second half of the seventeenth century.
The English slave traders picked up blacks from West Africa and transported them to the Caribbean to work as slaves, principally on sugar plantations, and to the southern American states, principally click here work on cotton and tobacco plantations.
A few of them were brought to England to work principally as domestic servants and also as court entertainers.
From the late sixteenth century and increasingly in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became fashionable for wealthy families to have one of two black servants.
Their legal status was that of slaves and as such they were bought and sold.
They were normally required to wear metal collars so that if they ran away they could be identified and returned to their owners Fryer, 1984.
In the 1770s and 1780s several hundred runaway American slaves came to England after the end of the American Revolutionary War.
The government regarded them as a serious social problem.
It set up a scheme to resettle them in Sierra Leone, and 350 of them were actually sent there.
From the seventeenth century a number of British writers asserted that blacks are less intelligent than Europeans.
These included David Hume who wrote: I am apt to suspect that Negroes, and in general all other species of men for there are four or five different kinds to be naturally inferior to whites.
There never was a civilized nation of any other complexion than white, nor even any individual, either in action or speculation.
No ingenious manufacture amongst them, no arts, no sciences 1753, p.
The British outlawed the slave trade in 1807 and in 1833 abolished slavery throughout the empire.
By the beginning of the twentieth century there were very few blacks in Britain, and the only significant black communities were in the ports of Liverpool and Cardiff.
In 1919 there were race riots in these two cities.
It was only after the end of World War II that large numbers of blacks and also Asians mainly from the Indian sub-Continent and Hong Kong settled in Britain and transformed it into a multiracial society.
This was brought about though the British Nationality Act passed in 1948 by the Labour Government led by Prime Minister Clement Atlee.
This act conferred British citizenship on the people of the British colonies and gave them the right to enter, settle, and work in Britain.
At that time the British colonies consisted of India, much of Africa, most of the Caribbean, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and a number of other smaller territories.
The act gave similar rights of entry and residence in Britain to citizens of the British Commonwealth, consisting of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
In May, 1948, within a few weeks of the act becoming law, the first ship-load of blacks arrived in Britain from Jamaica.
In the 1950s quite large numbers of blacks and Indians were entering and settling in Britain.
Towards the end of the decade it was becoming apparent that while Indian immigrants adapted quite well to life in Britain, blacks were presenting problems.
In 1958 the first of a number of race riots, in which blacks burned and looted shops, broke out in the Notting Hill district of London and in the city of Nottingham.
In 1980 black race riots broke out in Bristol and in 1981 in the London district of Brixton and the Toxteth district of Liverpool.
In 1985 there were more black race riots in the Handsworth district of Birmingham and again in London.
In 1962 an attempt was made to curtail immigration by the Commonwealth Immigration Act.
This removed the right of entry to Britain of citizens of the Colonies and Commonwealth, except for parents, spouses, and children of those already in the country, and for those issued with employment vouchers certifying that no British citizens were available to do the job for which the voucher was issued.
In 1963, 30,130 employment vouchers were issued and the numbers of these was gradually reduced until they reached 2,290 in 1972.
It was believed that this would largely end immigration into Britain, but it soon became apparent that this was not happening.
Large numbers of immigrants continued to enter the country, principally through family reunification by which male immigrants were allowed to bring in their wives and dependent children, and also through illegal entry and as asylum seekers and refugees.
In the 1970s the problem of the poor performance of black children in school became so widespread that the Government set up a committee to inquire into its causes.
In 1985 the committee published a report that included a paper by Mackintosh and Mascie-Taylor 1985two professors at the University of Cambridge, in which they concluded that the low IQ of black children explained the differences in educational performance between the two groups.
Figures for the growth in the numbers of these New Commonwealth immigrants are set out in Table 5.
These statistics are derived from the censuses for 1951 through 2001.
Coleman and Salt 1992 considered that they underestimate the actual numbers in the country because many non-Europeans are illegally resident and do not wish to disclose their presence by filling in census forms.
They estimate that the figures understate the true numbers by around 20 percent.
Numbers of non-Europeans in Britain, 1951—2001 Year Blacks Indians Pak.
Chinese 1951 16,000 111,000 11,000 — 1961 172,000 157,000 31,000 — 1971 302,000 313,000 136,000 — 1991 890,000 840,000 640,000 157,000 2001 1,100,000 1,100,000 1,000,000 209,000 The numbers of these groups in 1991 and 2001 expressed as percentages of the population are given in Table 5.
The figures for the growth of these non-European populations show that despite the attempt of the 1962 Immigration Act to prevent further primary immigration, the non-European populations continued to increase.
Over the period 1961 to 1991 the numbers of all these populations increased approximately fivefold and their proportion in the population continued to increase in the next decade.
The failure of the 1962 Act to halt the growth of the numbers of the immigrant population has been due to five factors.
First, most immigrants are young adults who soon have children.
Second, many immigrants enter Britain illegally or as visitors and never return.
Third, they enter as spouses following arranged marriages.
This is particularly the case with immigrants from the Indian sub-continent; many have family connections in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh with whom they arrange marriages between a young person in Britain and one on the sub-continent in order to obtain entry to Britain.
In a number of cases young Asian women in Britain have been taken to India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh and forced into marriage in order to get their husbands rights of entry to Britain.
Fourth, they enter as asylum seekers.
It is estimated that over the period 1989—97, 268,595 asylum seekers entered Britain, consisting principally of Africans from Angola, Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, and Zaire, and South Asians from India and Pakistan.
Most of these are either granted residence or remain in Britain without permission.
Fifth, black and South Asian immigrants, although not the Chinese, have significantly higher fertility than whites.
The results of studies of the intelligence of Africans in Britain are given in Table 5.
The IQs lie in the range between 73—94, except for the IQ of 104 in row 6.
This was derived from nine African children taken into institutions as infants because their mothers were unable to look after them.
These results have been hailed by environmentalists as showing that when blacks and whites are raised in the same environment they have the same IQ, but they are so inconsistent with the other results in the table, and with those of Africans worldwide, which invariably show that African children have IQs well below whites, that they probably have to be regarded as spurious.
An even more remarkable feature of the results is that the mothers of these children were predominantly unskilled and had put them into institutions, and would probably have been of below average intelligence.
There were only nine children in the sample, and possibly this is just a fluke result.
Racial groups as percentages of the British population Year Whites Blacks Indians Pak.
There are two probable reasons for this.
First, standards of living, nutrition, and health care are higher in Britain than in sub-Saharan Africa and in the Caribbean.
These provide a better environment that improves intelligence.
Second, blacks in Britain are first or second generation immigrants and these probably have higher average intelligence than the populations from which they migrated.
This is likely because to migrate from sub-Saharan Africa or the West Indies to Britain probably requires a higher than average level of intelligence needed to find the money and organize the journey.
Blacks in the Caribbean and Africa with their average IQ of about 70 have the mental ability of the average European 11 year old.
The problems of migration would be quite difficult for those with IQs at this level, and it seems likely that most of the migrants would have higher IQs than this.
Evidence that in Britain immigration from the Caribbean has been selective for intelligence is provided by studies showing that the proportion of white ancestry in blacks in Jamaica, from which most British blacks have come, is 6.
This figure is derived from autosomal markers.
It is confirmed by white male ancestry of 26 percent indicated by the presence of Y chromosomes inherited from white men and by white female ancestry of 1—2 percent indicated by the presence of mitochondrial DNA inherited from white women.
This shows what has long been suspected—that mating between white men and black women was much commoner than mating between white women and black men.
There is considerable evidence that the proportion of white ancestry in blacks is a determinant of their IQs.
This can be inferred from the association between light skin color and intelligence Lynn, 2002.
In addition, studies in the United States have found that blacks in the northern states whose ancestors migrated from the south have higher IQs than those who have remained in the south.
This was first shown by Montagu 1945 and has been confirmed by Kaufman and Doppelt 1976 who found in an analysis of the WISC-R standardization data that blacks in the southern states had a mean IQ of 83 compared with 89 for blacks from the remainder of the United States.
There is also evidence suggesting that immigration from Africa has been selective for intelligence.
A report from the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys 2000 found that approximately a quarter of African immigrants had university degrees and a higher proportion were employed in professional occupations, while among indigenous whites approximately 12 percent had university degrees.
The South Asians in Britain come largely from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.
The results of the studies of their intelligence are given in Table 5.
Rows 10 through 12 give results from a study in which Pakistani, Indian, and Bangladeshi children attending the same schools obtained IQs of 93, 92, and 92, and therefore there were no IQ differences between these three groups from the Indian sub-Continent.
These IQs are relative to 100 for white children attending the same schools and are likely to be somewhat inflated because seven percent of white children, mainly middle class with higher IQs, attend private schools and white middle class parents who send their children to state schools typically tend to avoid sending them to schools with large numbers of immigrants.
The effect of this will have been that the IQs of the South Asians will be inflated relative to national norms.
There are no national norms for the tests used so the amount by which the IQs are inflated cannot be determined but is probably around five IQ points.
The median of the twelve studies of IQs of South Asians in Britain is an IQ of 92.
The range is quite large, from 83 to 97.
One reason for this considerable range is that the IQs increase with length of residence in Britain.
This is shown in the studies in rows 6 and 7 which give non-verbal reasoning IQs of 83 for Asian children resident for fewer than 4 years in Britain and 97 for those resident in Britain for four or more years, indicating a gain of 14 IQ points arising from residence in Britain.
It is interesting to note that the IQ of 83 of Indian children resident for fewer than four years in Britain is almost the same as the IQ of 82 for Indians in India given in Lynn 2006.
These IQ gains may be due to a variety of factors.
Recent immigrants will have had difficulty in speaking and understanding English and this will have impaired their performance even on non-verbal tests because of difficulty in understanding the instructions given in English.
In addition, those who had been born in Britain seems cool cat casino no deposit bonus codes september 2020 opinion have benefited from better nutrition and education than comparable children received in their own countries.
IQs of South Asians Ethnicity Age N Test IQ Reference 1 Indian 11 43 VR 87 ILEA, 1967 2 Pakistani 9—10 173 CPM 93 Dickenson et al.
Asians 11 37 NFER 83 Mackintosh et al.
Asians 11 25 NFER 97 Mackintosh et al.
This is suggested by a report from the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys 2000 that found that approximately 15 percent of Indians had university degrees as compared with approximately 12 percent among indigenous whites.
There is no discernable difference between the IQs of Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi children.
This is particularly evident in the study in summarized in rows 10 through 12 that give virtually identical IQs for children of these three origins attending the same schools.
The racial differences in intelligence cannot be explained by differences in nutrition, which is the major environmental determinant of intelligence.
This is evident from a study by Rona and Chinn 1987 of a representative sample of 13,073 that found no differences between whites, blacks, and Asians in weight or height.
It has only proved possible to find one study of the intelligence of the Chinese in Britain.
This study was published by the Inner London Education Authority 1987 for the years 1985 and 1986.
The study reported results for a verbal reasoning test taken by all 11 year olds attending state schools and numbering approximately 15,000.
The data were not given as average IQs but as the percentages of the races in the top 22 percent and in the bottom 22 percent.
To calculate the rank order of the races the percentage in the bottom 22 percent has been subtracted from the percentage in the top 22 percent.
For instance, the Chinese had 29.
The report also gave average scores obtained in the O level and CSE Certificate of Secondary Education examinations in academic subjects math, English, science, etc.
These are shown in column 4 of Table 5.
It will be seen that the race differences in IQs are fairly but not entirely consistent with the scores in the O level and CSE.
The Indians obtained a lower IQ than the whites, consistent with the results in Table 5.
Four conclusions can be drawn from the results.
First, the Bangladeshis performed poorly on both the verbal IQ test and the O level and CSE examinations.
The reason for this is that many of these children were recent immigrants who did not speak English the higher IQ of Bangladeshis reported a few years later by West et al.
Little value can be attached to these results except that they explain why Bangladeshis tend to do poorly.
Second, chinese poker online Chinese performed best on IQ and in the O level and CSE examinations.
The IQ of the Chinese can be estimated roughly as follows.
The difference between the whites and the Chinese in Table 5.
The IQ difference of the whites and the Indians plus Pakistanis is 10 IQ points, shown in Table 5.
Hence the difference between the whites and the Chinese is approximately one third of this, namely 3.
The Chinese advantage of 3.
Third, the African children performed better than the Caribbeans and whites on educational attainment.
Probably the main reason for this is that African immigrants have higher educational attainment and more info status than these two groups in this sample see Table 5.
It should be noted, however, that the sample consisted of children at state schools in Inner London.
Whites in inner London are typically the very rich, who normally send their children to private schools, or the poor, who have IQs below the average of the total white population.
Hence, the IQs of the whites in this sample will be below average by an unknown amount.
Fourth, the Caribbean blacks performed poorly on both the verbal IQ test and the O level and CSE examinations, consistent with numerous other studies.
Rows 1 through 3 give the results of a study carried https://oilfieldchili.com/2020/cherokee-poker-classic-2020.html in the mid-1920s in London.
Children aged 8—14 were tested in three schools in which Jewish and gentile children were present in approximately equal numbers.
The children were tested for general intelligence with the Northumberland Test, a largely verbal test.
The Jewish children obtained a mean IQ of 110.
The children were also tested on arithmetic and reading and obtained an arithmetic quotient of 110.
These are both are very close to their IQ and show, as in many other studies, that differences in educational attainment are largely due to intelligence.
Row 4 gives an IQ of 113 obtained on a reasoning test for Jewish children attending two schools together with gentile children in two schools in the East End of London.
The East End was a lower socioeconomic community, so the gentile children were probably a little below average.
Typically the IQ gap between lower class and middle class children is about 10 IQ points, suggesting that the IQ of the Jewish sample in relation to a socially representative sample of gentile children would have been approximately 108—110.
Row 5 gives an IQ of 111 for a sample of 907 10-year-old Jewish children in the city of Glasgow.
These children were found to have a mean IQ of 117.
The unusually high IQ of the Jewish children is this study is explained by the intelligence of non-Jewish children in Scotland being somewhat depressed as compared with that in Great Britain as a whole, as shown in detail in Lynn 1979.
The intelligence of non-Jewish children in Glasgow was at this time more depressed than that in the rest of Scotland.
The extensive data presented by Vernon 1951 on mean IQs in different regions of Great Britain put the mean IQ in Glasgow at 93.
To compare the mean IQ of Jewish children in Glasgow with that of British non-Jewish gentiles we have therefore to subtract 6.
This brings the mean IQ of the Jewish in Glasgow obtained in this study closely into line with results of the two London studies given in rows 2 and 3.
Row 6 gives an IQ of 107.
The IQ of 107.
Row 7 gives a mean Jewish IQ of 108.
The sample was intelligence tested at the age of 8 years.
Although the sample sizes are small in the studies shown in rows 6 and 7, the higher Jewish IQ is statistically significant.
The average IQ of the six studies is 110.
Jews have higher socioeconomic status than gentiles and higher proportions in the professions.
For instance, a study by Krause 1969 of the London district of Edgware found that 57 percent of Jewish men worked in professional or managerial occupations, compared with 39 percent of gentiles.
He also reported that about three percent of university students were Jews, although Jews were only approximately 0.
From 1970 studies began to appear of the incidence of mental retardation in the indigenous British population and in the racial and ethnic minorities.
These would not be expected to differ between the races.
Mental retardation is also partly the tail end of the normal distribution of intelligence and the incidence of this would be expected to be greater among the ethnic minorities because these have a lower mean IQ and hence a greater proportion at the low end of the distribution.
The results of the studies of race differences in the incidence of mental retardation in Britain are summarized in Table 5.
Row 1 gives the results from a national survey of the incidence of mental retardation among school students in England carried out in 1970 and shows that this was 3.
The greater incidence among the blacks than among whites is expected because the mean IQ is lower, the distribution is shifted downwards, and there is a greater proportion among those with very low intelligence who constitute the mentally retarded.
The lower incidence of mental retardation among the South Asians is unexpected and difficult to explain.
It is difficult to understand how any of these can be responsible for mental retardation.
Contrary to the last of these suggestions, it has been repeatedly found in reviews by Stone 1981Milner 1983and Verkuyten 1994 that blacks in Britain have as high or higher self-esteem than whites.
IQs and educational attainment of Jews in Britain Age N.
Gentiles Test IQ 1 8—14 1081 813 IQ 110.
Row 2 gives the results of a study of the incidence of mental retardation in black and white school students in primary and secondary schools in England and Wales from a survey carried out by the government Department for Education and Science in 1972 Tomlinson, 1981.
The results showed that the incidence of mental retardation was 4.
The government has not collected statistics of race differences in the incidence of mental retardation since 1972.
Row 3 gives the percentages in remedial math classes in a sample of 1607 drawn from 22 secondary schools Scarr et al.
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